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Archaeplastida
The Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
(or kingdom Plantae
Plantae
sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.[4] The chloroplasts of all these organisms are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In all other groups besides the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. The cells of the Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae
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Calymmian
The Calymmian Period (from Greek κάλυμμα (kálymma), meaning "cover") is the first geologic period in the Mesoproterozoic Era and lasted from 1600 Mya to 1400 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined chronometrically. The period is characterised by expansion of existing platform covers, or by new platforms on recently cratonized basements. The supercontinent Columbia broke up during the Calymmian some 1500 Mya. See also[edit]Boring Billion JotnianReferences[edit]" Calymmian Period". GeoWhen Database. Archived from the original on May 12, 2006. Retrieved January 5, 2006.  James G. Ogg (2004). "Status on Divisions of the International Geologic
Geologic
Time Scale". Lethaia
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Chlorophyll B
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
b is a form of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. It is more soluble than chlorophyll a in polar solvents because of its carbonyl group. Its color is yellow, and it primarily absorbs blue light.[2] In land plants, the light-harvesting antennae around photosystem II contain the majority of chlorophyll b. Hence, in shade-adapted chloroplasts, which have an increased ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I, there is a higher ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a.[3][full citation needed] This is adaptive, as increasing chlorophyll b increases the range of wavelengths absorbed by the shade chloroplasts.Structure of chlorophyll b molecule showing the long hydrocarbon tailReferences[edit]^ a b c Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.)
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Crista
1 Outer membrane1.1 Porin2 Intermembrane space2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella3.1 Inner membrane3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ
Cristæ
  ◄ You are here4 Mitochondrial DNA 5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthaseA crista (/ˈkrɪstə/; plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The name is from the Latin for crest or plume, and it gives the inner membrane its characteristic wrinkled shape, providing a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions to occur on. This aids aerobic cellular respiration, because the mitochondrion requires oxygen
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Cellulose
Cellulose
Cellulose
is an organic compound with the formula (C 6H 10O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose
Cellulose
is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[5] Cellulose
Cellulose
is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[6] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9] Cellulose
Cellulose
is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source
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Monophyletic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Brown Algae
see Classification.SynonymsFucophyceae Warming, 1884 Melanophyceae Rabenhorst, 1863 PhaeophytaThe Phaeophyceae or brown algae (singular: alga), are a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
waters. They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and as habitats. For instance, Macrocystis, a kelp of the order Laminariales, may reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and forms prominent underwater kelp forests. Kelp
Kelp
forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity.[4] Another example is Sargassum, which creates unique floating mats of seaweed in the tropical waters of the Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
that serve as the habitats for many species. Many brown algae, such as members of the order Fucales, commonly grow along rocky seashores
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Chlorophyll A
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
a is a specific form of chlorophyll used in oxygenic photosynthesis. It absorbs most energy from wavelengths of violet-blue and orange-red light.[3] It also reflects green-yellow light, and as such contributes to the observed green color of most plants
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Phycobiliprotein
Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) that capture light energy, which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. Phycobiliproteins are formed of a complex between proteins and covalently bound phycobilins that act as chromophores (the light-capturing part). They are most important constituents of the phycobilisomes. Major phycobiliproteins:Phycobiliprotein MW (kDa) Ex (nm) / Em (nm) Quantum yield Molar Extinction Coefficient (M−1cm−1) CommentR- Phycoerythrin
Phycoerythrin
(R-PE) 240 498.546.566 nm / 576 nm 0,84 1.53 106 Can be excited by Kr/Ar laser Applications for R-Phycoerythrin Many applications and instruments were developed specifically for R-phycoerythrin
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Paulinella
P. bulloides[2] P. chromatophora[3] P. osloensis[2] P. ovalis[4] P. quinqueloba[2] P. riveroi[2] P. sphaeroides[2] P. subcarinata[2] P. subsphaerica[2] P. trinitatensis[2]Paulinella is a genus of about nine[5] species of freshwater amoeboids. Its most famous member is the photosynthetic P. chromatophora which has recently (in evolutionary terms) taken on a cyanobacterium as an endosymbiont.[6] This is striking because the chloroplasts of all other known photosynthetic eukaryotes derive ultimately from a single cyanobacterium endosymbiont which was taken in probably over a billion years ago in an ancestral archaeplastidan (and subsequently adopted into other eukaryote groups, by further endosymbiosis events)
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Magnolia Virginiana
Magnolia
Magnolia
virginiana, most commonly known as sweetbay magnolia, or merely sweetbay (also laurel magnolia, swampbay, swamp magnolia, whitebay, or beaver tree),[1] is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae
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Monophyly
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Paraphyly
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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