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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades.[5] Archaeology
Archaeology
is distinct from palaeontology, which is the study of fossil remains
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Molecular Anthropology
Molecular
Molecular
anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species. Generally, comparisons are made between sequences, either DNA or protein sequences; however, early studies used comparative serology. By examining DNA sequences
DNA sequences
in different populations, scientists can determine the closeness of relationships between populations (or within populations). Certain similarities in genetic makeup let molecular anthropologists determine whether or not different groups of people belong to the same haplogroup, and thus if they share a common geographical origin
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Cyborg Anthropology
Cyborg
Cyborg
anthropology is a discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society.Contents1 History 2 Methodology2.1 'Cyborg' Origins and Meaning 2.2 Digital vs
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Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
Evolutionary anthropology
is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates. Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science
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Primatology
Primatology
Primatology
is the scientific study of primates.[1] It is a diverse discipline at the boundary between mammalogy and anthropology, and researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy, anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, veterinary sciences and zoology, as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities, museums and zoos.[2] Primatologists study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour.Contents1 Sub-disci
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Biocultural Anthropology
Biocultural anthropology can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture.[1] "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations."[1]Contents1 History 2 Key research 3 Contemporary biocultural anthropology 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Physical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences.[2] After World War II
World War II
the emphasis began to shift toward an effort to explore the role culture plays in shaping human biology
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The Archeologist
The Archeologist is a 1914 American silent short drama film directed by Henry Otto
Henry Otto
starring Ed, Winifred Greenwood, and John Steppling. Cast[edit]Ed Coxen as Billy Green Winifred Greenwood
Winifred Greenwood
as Mary Devon John Steppling
John Steppling
as James Devon, her father Edith Borella as Mimi Charlotte Burton
Charlotte Burton
as Edna Lee George Field as Snow BallExternal links[edit] The Archeologist on IMDbThis 1910s short drama film-related article is a stub
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Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology
(also known as human–non-human-animal studies, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology, ethnology, medicine, psychology, veterinary medicine and zoology
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Legal Anthropology
Legal anthropology, also known as the anthropology of laws, is a sub-discipline of anthropology which specializes in "the cross-cultural study of social ordering".[1] The questions that Legal Anthropologists seek to answer concern how is law present in cultures? How does it manifest? How may anthropologists contribute to understandings of law? Earlier legal anthropological research focused more narrowly on conflict management, crime, sanctions, or formal regulation. Bronisław Malinowski's 1926 work, Crime and Custom in Savage Society, explored law, order, crime, and punishment among the Trobriand Islanders.[2] The English lawyer Sir Henry Maine
Henry M

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Kinship
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox
Robin Fox
states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends."[1] These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. Kinship
Kinship
can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e
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Anthropology Of Institutions
The anthropology of institutions is a sub-field in social anthropology dedicated to the study of institutions in different cultural contexts. The role of anthropology in institutions has expanded significantly since the end of the 20th century.[1] Much of this development can be attributed to the rise in anthropologists working outside of academia and the increasing importance of globalization in both institutions and the field of anthropology.[1] Anthropologists can be employed by institutions such as for-profit business, nonprofit organizations, and governments.[1] For instance, cultural anthropologists are commonly employed by the United States federal government.[1] The two types of institutions defined in the field of anthropology are total institutions and social institutions.[2] Total institutions are places that comprehensively coordinate the actions of people within them, and examples of total institutions include prisons, convents, and hospitals.[2] Social institutions, on th
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Ethnohistory
Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not still exist. The term is most commonly used in writing about the history of the Americas. Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. Its historical methods and materials go beyond the standard use of documents and manuscripts
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Political Economy In Anthropology
Political Economy in anthropology is the application of the theories and methods of Historical Materialism
Historical Materialism
to the traditional concerns of anthropology, including, but not limited to, non-capitalist societies. Political Economy introduced questions of history and colonialism to ahistorical anthropological theories of social structure and culture. Most anthropologists moved away from modes of production analysis typical of structural Marxism, and focused instead on the complex historical relations of class, culture and hegemony in regions undergoing complex colonial and capitalist transitions in the emerging world system.[1] Political Economy was introduced in American anthropology primarily through the support of Julian Steward, a student of Kroeber. Steward’s research interests centered on “subsistence” — the dynamic interaction of man, environment, technology, social structure, and the organization of work
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Environmental Anthropology
Environmental anthropology
Environmental anthropology
is a sub-specialty[1] within the field of anthropology that takes an active role in examining the relationships between humans and their environment across space and time.Contents1 Philosophies1.1 Adaptation: environment over culture 1.2 Diversity, history and associations 1.3 Policy and activism: politics versus environmentalism2 History2.1 Origins and pioneers 2.2 Transformations3 Purpose 4 See also 5 ReferencesPhilosophies[edit] Adaptation: environment
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Ecological Anthropology
Ecological anthropology
Ecological anthropology
is a sub-field of anthropology and is defined as the "study of cultural adaptations to environments".[1] The sub-field is also defined as, "the study of relationships between a population of humans and their biophysical environment".[2] The focus of its research concerns "how cultural beliefs and practices helped human populations adapt to their environments, and how people used elements of their culture to maintain their ecosystems".[1]
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Digital Anthropology
Digital anthropology is the anthropological study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology. The field is new, and thus has a variety of names with a variety of emphases. These include techno-anthropology,[1] digital ethnography, cyberanthropology,[2] and virtual anthropology.[3]Contents1 Definition and scope 2 Methodology2.1 Digital fieldwork 2.2 Digital technology
Digital technology
as a tool of anthropology3 Ethics 4 University courses 5 Prominent figures 6 See also 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography8 External linksDefinition and scope[edit] Digital technology
Digital technology
uses binary codes of 0s and 1s to relay messages between machines. Most anthropologists who use the phrase "digital anthropology" are specifically referring to online and Internet technology
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