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Archaeological
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Biocultural Anthropology
BIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture . "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations. Biocultural anthropology attempts to understand challenges to human biology in an ever increasing and diversified cultural environment." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Key research * 3 Contemporary biocultural anthropology * 4 Controversy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYPhysical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences
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Molecular Anthropology
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Primatology
PRIMATOLOGY is the scientific study of primates . It is a diverse discipline and researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy , anthropology , biology , medicine, psychology , veterinary sciences and zoology , as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities, museums and zoos. PRIMATOLOGISTS study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour
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Cyborg Anthropology
CYBORG ANTHROPOLOGY is a discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society. CONTENTS * 1 History
History
* 2 Methodology * 2.1 The cyborg * 2.2 Digital vs. Cyborg Anthropology
Anthropology
* 3 Key concepts and research * 3.1 Actor–network theory * 3.2 Artificial Intelligence * 3.3 Posthumanism * 4 Notable Figures * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading HISTORY Donna Haraway ’s 1985 " "A Cyborg Manifesto" was the first widely-read academic text to explore the philosophical and sociological ramifications of the cyborg
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Lausanne
LAUSANNE (/loʊˈzæn/ , French: , Italian : Losanna, Romansh : Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland
Switzerland
, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud
Vaud
. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French : Lac Léman, or simply Le Léman). It faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains , with the Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
to its north-west. Lausanne
Lausanne
is located 62 kilometres (38.5 miles) northeast of Geneva
Geneva
. Lausanne
Lausanne
has a population (as of November 2015) of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants (as of March 2015)
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Anthrozoology
ANTHROZOOLOGY (also known as HUMAN–NON-HUMAN-ANIMAL STUDIES, or HAS) is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between humans and other animals. It is an interdisciplinary field that overlaps with other disciplines including anthropology , ethnology , medicine , psychology , veterinary medicine and zoology . A major focus of anthrozoologic research is the quantifying of the positive effects of human-animal relationships on either party and the study of their interactions. It includes scholars from fields such as anthropology, sociology, biology, history and philosophy. Anthrozoology scholars, such as Pauleen Bennett recognize the lack of scholarly attention given to non-human animals in the past, and to the relationships between human and non-human animals, especially in the light of the magnitude of animal representations, symbols, stories and their actual physical presence in human societies
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Archaeology (album)
ARCHAEOLOGY is the second album by parody band The Rutles . Like their previous release , the album contains pastiches of Beatles songs. Three of the four musicians who had created the soundtrack for the 1978 film – Neil Innes , John Halsey , and Ricky Fataar – reunited in 1996 and recorded a second album, Archaeology, an affectionate send-up of The Beatles Anthology albums (although its original cover design rather parodied that of The Beatles' singles compilation Past Masters: Volume One ). The fourth 'real' Rutle, Ollie Halsall , died in Spain in 1992. Eric Idle was invited to participate, but declined. Like the Anthology project that it lampooned, it featured tracks ostensibly from all periods of the Rutles' career, sequenced to reflect the fictional band's chronology. Several of the songs were actually older Innes songs that were dusted off and given the 'Rutles' treatment. The reunion was blessed by George Harrison , who encouraged The Pre-Fab Four to proceed
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The Rutles
THE RUTLES (/ˈrʌtəlz/ ) are a rock band known for their visual and aural pastiches and parodies of the Beatles . This originally fictional band, created by Eric Idle
Eric Idle
and Neil Innes
Neil Innes
for 1970s television programming, became an actual group - whilst remaining a parody of the Beatles - which toured and recorded, releasing many songs and albums that included two UK chart hits. Created as a short sketch in Idle's UK television comedy series Rutland Weekend Television
Rutland Weekend Television
, the Rutles gained fame after being the focus of the 1978 mockumentary television film, All You Need Is Cash (The Rutles). Actual Beatle George Harrison
George Harrison
notably appeared in the film and assisted in its creation
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Ruins
RUINS (from the Latin "Ruina") are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster
Natural disaster
, war and depopulation are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China , the Indus valley
Indus valley
and Judea
Judea
to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in Africa, ancient Greek , Egyptian and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin , and Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas
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Forensic Anthropology
FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy , in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves . Along with forensic pathologists , forensic dentists , and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses . Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex , stature , and ancestry
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Neuroanthropology
NEUROANTHROPOLOGY is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links OVERVIEW Neuroanthropology
Neuroanthropology
explores how the brain gives rise to culture, how culture influences brain development, structure and function, and the pathways followed by the co-evolution of brain and culture. Moreover, neuroanthropologists consider how new findings in the brain sciences help us understand the interactive effects of culture and biology on human development and behavior. In one way or another, neuroanthropologists ground their research and explanations in how the human brain develops, how it is structured and how it functions within the genetic and cultural limits of its biology (see Biogenetic structuralism and related website)
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Nutritional Anthropology
NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY is the interplay between human biology, economic systems , nutritional status and food security , and how changes in the former affect the latter. If economic and environmental changes in a community affect access to food, food security, and dietary health, then this interplay between culture and biology is in turn connected to broader historical and economic trends associated with globalization. Nutritional status affects overall health status, work performance potential, and the overall potential for economic development (either in terms of human development or traditional western models) for any given group of people
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Digital Anthropology
DIGITAL ANTHROPOLOGY is the anthropological study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology. The field is new, and thus has a variety of names with a variety of emphases. These include techno-anthropology, digital ethnography, cyberanthropology, and virtual anthropology. CONTENTS * 1 Definition and scope * 2 Methodology * 2.1 Digital fieldwork * 2.2 Digital technology as a tool of anthropology * 3 Ethics * 4 University courses * 5 Prominent figures * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Notes * 7.2 Bibliography * 8 External links DEFINITION AND SCOPE Digital technology uses binary codes of 0s and 1s to relay messages between machines. Most anthropologists who use the phrase "digital anthropology" are specifically referring to online and Internet technology
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Evolutionary Anthropology
EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates . Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science
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Biological Anthropology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, also known as PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings . CONTENTS * 1 Branches * 2 History * 3 Notable biological anthropologists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BRANCHESAs a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior
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