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Arbella Stuart
LADY ARBELLA STUART (or "ARABELLA" and/or "STEWART") (1575 – 25 September 1615) was a noblewoman who was for some time considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
. Born in England, Arbella Stuart was the only child of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox (of the third creation), by his marriage to Elizabeth Cavendish . She was a grandchild of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (of the second creation) and Lady Margaret Douglas
Margaret Douglas
, who was in turn the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
, and of Queen Margaret Tudor
Margaret Tudor
, the widow of James IV of Scotland
James IV of Scotland
. Arbella was therefore a great-great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England and in line to the English throne, although she did not herself aspire to it
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James VI Of Scotland
JAMES VI AND I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as JAMES VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as JAMES I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union . James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland , positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583
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Lute
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(early lutes) Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(modern lutes) RELATED INSTRUMENTS List * * Angélique *
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Viol
The VIOL /ˈvaɪəl/ , VIOLA DA GAMBA , or (informally) GAMBA, is any one of a family of bowed , fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the viol are usually made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone which better matches the open strings. Viols first appeared in Spain
Spain
in the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque (1600-1750) periods
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Virginals
The VIRGINALS or VIRGINAL is a keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family. It was popular in Europe during the late Renaissance and early baroque periods. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Mechanism * 3 Etymology * 4 History * 5 Types * 5.1 Spinet virginals * 5.2 Muselars * 5.3 Ottavini * 5.4 Double virginals * 6 Compass and pitch * 7 Decoration * 8 Composers and collections of works * 9 Further reading * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links DESCRIPTIONA virginal is a smaller and simpler rectangular form of the harpsichord with only one string per note running more or less parallel to the keyboard on the long side of the case. Many, if not most, of the instruments were constructed without legs, and would be placed on a table for playing. Later models were built with their own stands
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Ludovic Stuart, 2nd Duke Of Lennox
LUDOVIC STEWART, 2ND DUKE OF LENNOX AND 1ST DUKE OF RICHMOND (29 September 1574 – 16 February 1624), was a Scottish nobleman and politician. He was the son of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox
Duke of Lennox
, and his wife, Catherine de Balsac. Ludovic was involved in the Plantation of Ulster in Ireland and the colonization of Maine
Maine
in New England
New England
. Richmond\'s Island and Cape Richmond , as well as Richmond, Maine (formerly Fort Richmond), are named for him. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Life * 3 Plantations and colonies * 4 Title * 5 See also * 6 References FAMILY Arms of Sir Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox
Duke of Lennox
and Richmond, KG Ludovic married, firstly, Sophia Ruthven, daughter of William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie , before June 1590
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Sigismund III Vasa
SIGISMUND III VASA (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Polish : Zygmunt III Waza, Swedish : Sigismund, Lithuanian : Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym : Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S. ) was King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599. He was the son of King John III of Sweden
Sweden
and his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland
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George Talbot, 6th Earl Of Shrewsbury
GEORGE TALBOT, 6TH EARL OF SHREWSBURY, 6TH EARL OF WATERFORD, 12TH BARON TALBOT, 11TH BARON FURNIVALL, KG , Earl Marshal (1528 – 18 November 1590) was an English magnate and military commander. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Family * 3 Letters and papers * 4 In fiction * 5 Notes LIFE Quartered arms of Sir George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, KG Talbot was the only son of Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury and Mary Dacre. In early life he saw active military service, when he took part in the invasion of Scotland under the Protector Somerset . He was sent by his father in October 1557 to the relief of Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland pent up in Alnwick Castle
Alnwick Castle
. He then remained for some months in service on the border, with five hundred horsemen under his command
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Court (royal)
The COURT of a monarch , or an important nobleman , is the extended household and all those who regularly attend on the ruler or central figure. The court of the monarchy would gather in the throne room . In the largest courts, the royal households , many thousands of individuals comprised the court. These courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue , household , nobility , those with court appointments , bodyguard , and may also include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may also seek refuge at a court. Near Eastern
Near Eastern
and Eastern courts often included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was walled off and separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia
Asia
, concubines were often a more visible part of the court
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Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
County Council http://www.nottscc.gov.uk/ EXECUTIVE Labour ADMIN HQ West Bridgford AREA 2,085 km2 (805 sq mi) • RANKED 24th of 27 POPULATION 810,700 • RANKED 10th of 27 DENSITY 388/km2 (1,000/sq mi) ISO 3166-2
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Philip III Of Spain
PHILIP III (Spanish : Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain . He was also, as PHILIP II, King of Portugal
King of Portugal
, Naples
Naples
, Sicily and Sardinia and Duke of Milan
Duke of Milan
. A member of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
, Philip III was born in Madrid
Madrid
to King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
and his fourth wife and niece Anna , the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Maria of Spain
. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria , sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Catholic Cardinal
A CARDINAL ( Latin
Latin
: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church
Prince of the Church
, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant
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Defrock
DEFROCKING, UNFROCKING, or LAICIZATION of clergy is the removal of their rights to exercise the functions of the ordained ministry. It may be grounded on criminal convictions , disciplinary problems, or disagreements over doctrine or dogma , but may also be done at their request for personal reasons, such as running for civil office, taking over a family business, declining health or old age, desire to marry against the rules for clergy in a particular church, or an unresolved dispute. The form of the procedure varies according to the Christian denomination concerned. The term "defrocking" implies forced laicization for misconduct, while "laicization" is a neutral term, applicable also when clergy have requested to be released from their ordination vows
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Protestant
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Isaac D'Israeli
ISAAC D\'ISRAELI (11 May 1766 – 19 January 1848) was a British writer, scholar and man of letters . He is best known for his essays, his associations with other men of letters, and as the father of British Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Benjamin Disraeli
Benjamin Disraeli
. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Major works * 3 References * 4 External links LIFE AND CAREERIsaac was born in Enfield, Middlesex
Middlesex
, England, the only child of Benjamin D\'Israeli (1730–1816), a Jewish merchant who had emigrated from Cento
Cento
, Italy in 1748, and his second wife, Sarah Syprut de Gabay Villa Real (1742/3–1825). Isaac received much of his education in Leiden
Leiden
. At the age of 16, he began his literary career with some verses addressed to Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson

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