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Araku Valley Road
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains typically with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide
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Valley (other)
Valley
Valley
is a low area between hills. Valley
Valley
may also refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Canada 1.2 Germany 1.3 United States 1.4 Wales2 People 3 Arts, entertainment, and media 4 Brands and enterprises 5 Other uses 6 See alsoPlaces[edit] Canada[edit]Valley, Nova ScotiaGermany[edit]Valley, BavariaUnited States[edit]Valley, Alabama Valley, Nebraska Valley, New Jersey Valley, Ohio Valley, Providence, Rhode Island, a neighborhood Valley, Washington Valley, West Virginia Valley, Wisconsin Valley
Valley
Creek (Pennsylvania), a tributary of the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania Valley
Valley
Mountains, of Utah Hudson Valley Silicon ValleyWales[edit]Valley, AngleseyPeople[edit]Alvin Valley, American fashion designer Dylan Valley, South African film producer F
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Fluvial
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used.[1][2]Contents1 Fluvial
Fluvial
processes 2 See also2.1 Fluvial
Fluvial
processes 2.2 Fluvial
Fluvial
channel patterns 2.3 Fluvial
Fluvial
landforms 2.4 Related terms3 References Fluvial
Fluvial
processes[edit] Fluvial
Fluvial
processes include the motion of sediment and erosion or deposition on the river bed.[3][4] Erosion
Erosion
by moving water can happen in two ways
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Longitudinal Valley
A longitudinal valley is an elongated valley found between two almost parallel mountain chains in geologically young fold mountains such as the Alps, Carpathians, Andes
Andes
or the highlands of Central Asia. They are often occupied and shaped by a subsequent stream.[1] The term is frequently used if a mountain range also has prominent transverse valleys, where rivers cut through the mountain chains in so-called water gaps. Many longitudinal valleys follow the strike of the rock strata[1] or significant geological fault lines. These are formed in conjunction with the tectonic movements during the mountain building, which in turn are due to plate tectonic processes. The faults be structures that reach deep into the lower part of the earth's crust, that are already in place before the actual mountain building phase and are later reactivated as, for example, is the case in the Periadriatic Seam in the Alps
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Canyon
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English
British English
spelling: cañon)[1] or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.[2] Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces, eventually wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will gradually reach a baseline elevation, which is the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains. The processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at significantly different elevations,[3] particularly through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. A canyon may also refer to a rift between two mountain peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes
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Ravine
A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streamcutting erosion.[1] Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than gullies, although smaller than valleys.[1] Definition[edit]Ravines may or may not have active streams flowing along the downslope channel which originally formed them; moreover, often they are characterized by intermittent streams, since their geographic scale may not be sufficiently large to support a perennial watercourse.[2]A ravine is a deep valley which is formed due to linear/dendritic fluvial erosion of loose unconsolidated and bare soils byes.Other terms for ravine includecleuch dell ghout (Nevis) gill or ghyll glen gorge Gravina in Puglia kloof (South Africa) chine (Isle of Wight)Notes[edit]^ a b Definition of "ravine" at Merriam-Webster ^ Christopher G. Morris; Academic Press (1992). Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. Gulf Professional Publishing. pp. 1802–. ISBN 978-0-12-200400-1
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Gully
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside. Gullies resemble large ditches or small valleys, but are metres to tens of metres in depth and width. When the gully formation is in process, the water flow rate can be substantial, causing a significant deep cutting action into soil.Contents1 Etymology 2 Formation and consequences 3 Artificial gullies 4 On Mars 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The earliest known usage of the term is from 1657. It originates from the French word goulet, a diminutive form of goule which means throat. It is possible that the term was derived from a type of knife at the time, a gully-knife, because hills that have gullies look as if they are cut open with a sharp knife.[citation needed] Formation and consequences[edit] Gully
Gully
erosion is the process by which gullies are formed
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Chine
A chine ( /ˈtʃaɪn/) is a steep-sided coastal river valley where the river flows to the sea through, typically, soft eroding cliffs of sandstone or clays. The word is still in use in central Southern England—notably in East Devon, Dorset, Hampshire
Hampshire
and the Isle of Wight—to describe such topographical features. However, 'bunny' is also used to describe a chine in Hampshire.Contents1 Formation and features 2 On the mainland 3 On the Isle of Wight 4 See Also 5 ReferencesFormation and features[edit] Chines appear at the outlet of small river valleys when a particular combination of geology, stream volume and coastal recession rate creates a knickpoint, usually starting at a waterfall at the cliff edge, that initiates rapid erosion and deepening of the stream bed into a gully leading down to the sea.[1] All chines are in a state of constant change due to erosion
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Kloof
Kloof
Kloof
is a leafy upper-class suburb and small town, that includes a smaller area called Everton, in the greater Durban
Durban
area of eThekwini in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The word Kloof
Kloof
(cf. cleft) means 'gorge' in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and the area is named after the deep ravine formed by the Molweni stream (stream of high cliffs). The Kloof
Kloof
Gorge is part of the 4.47-square-kilometre (1.73 sq mi) Krantzkloof Nature Reserve. Kloof
Kloof
extends from the top of Field's Hill and borders Winston Park, Gillitts, Forest Hills and Hillcrest
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River Phenomenon
River phenomenon
River phenomenon
describes distinctive, deeply incised river valleys in the landscape of Central Europe
Central Europe
in the sense of their biotic, geomorphologic and climatic features. This term is used mainly in the Czech Republic, where it was introduced by several studies in 1960s. Distinctiveness of deep river valleys is based on their sharp contrast to softly undulating landscape, prevailing in middle elevations of Czech. Steep slopes, exposed rocks pronouncing the effect of geological substrate on vegetation, contrast between the sunny and warm southerly oriented slopes and shaded cold northerly oriented slopes, high diversity of various extreme habitats situated next to each other, specific microclimatic conditions causing frequent temperature inversions, the main feature for existence of river phenomenon
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Vitosha
Vitosha
Vitosha
(Bulgarian: Витоша), the ancient Scomius or Scombrus,[1] is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Vitosha
Vitosha
is one of the symbols of Sofia
Sofia
and the closest site for hiking, alpinism and skiing. Convenient bus lines and rope ways render the mountain easily accessible. Vitosha
Vitosha
has the outlines of an enormous dome. The territory of the mountain includes Vitosha
Vitosha
nature park that encompasses the best known and most frequently visited parts. The foothills of Vitosha
Vitosha
shelter resort quarters of Sofia; Knyazhevo quarter has mineral springs. Vitosha
Vitosha
is the oldest nature park in the Balkans
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Geography Of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is a country situated in south-eastern Europe, bordering Romania
Romania
to the north, Serbia
Serbia
and the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
to the west, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
to the south, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east. The northern border with Romania
Romania
follows the river Danube
Danube
until the city of Silistra
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River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features,[1] although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek,[2] but not always: the language is vague.[3] Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Mountain Range
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it away to another location[1] (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion[2].The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution
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Base Level
In geology and geomorphology a base level is the lower limit for an erosion process.[1] The modern term was introduced by John Wesley Powell in 1875.[1] The term was subsequently appropriated by William Morris Davis who used it in his cycle of erosion theory.[1][2] The "ultimate base level" is the plane that results from projection of the sea level under landmasses.[1] It is to this base level that topography tends to approach due to erosion, eventually forming a peneplain at the end of a complete cycle of erosion.[3][4][5][6] There are also lesser structural base levels where erosion is delayed by resistant rocks.[1] Examples of this include karst regions underlain by insoluble rock.[7] Base levels may be local when large landmasses are far from the sea or disconnected from it, as in the case of endorheic basins.[1] An example of this is the Messinian salinity crisis, in which the
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