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Arabic Transliteration
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Glottal Stop
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩. Using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. As a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Writing 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the glottal stop:[citation needed]Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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DIN 31635
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
(DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j, because it stood for /dʒ/ in the English-speaking world and for /j/ in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann
Carl Brockelmann
and the dictionary of Hans Wehr
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UNGEGN
The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
(UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and deals with the national and international standardization of geographical names. Every five years they hold the United Nations Conference on the Standardization
Standardization
of Geographical Names.Contents1 History 2 Mandate and tasks 3 Structure3.1 Bureau 3.2 Divisions 3.3 Working Groups4 Conference 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] The question of standardizing geographical names was raised by the United Nations Cartographic Section of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in the late 1940s. After discussions in the 1950s and ECOSOC resolution 715A (XXVII) of 1959, the first meeting of a group of experts was convened in New York City in 1960
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Institut Géographique National
The Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière (National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information), previously Institut géographique national
Institut géographique national
(National Geographic Institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment founded in 1940[1] to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories.Contents1 Administrative organisation 2 Missions 3 Products 4 History 5 External links 6 ReferencesAdministrative organisation[edit] The IGN depends on the French Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Town and Country Planning, Tourism and Sea. Its missions are fixed by decrees. State subsidies represent 51% of the budget, and sales 49%. The IGN runs four laboratories to research geographical information acquisition, production, distribution and applications
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ALA-LC
ALA-LC ( American Library Association
American Library Association
- Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.Contents1 Applications 2 Scripts 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksApplications[edit] The system is used to represent bibliographic information by North American libraries and the British Library (for acquisitions since 1975)[1] and in publications throughout the English-speaking world. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules
require catalogers to romanize access points from their non-Roman originals.[2] However, as the MARC standards have been expanded to allow records containing Unicode characters,[3][4] many cataloguers now include bibliographic data in both Roman and original scripts
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American Library Association
The American Library
Library
Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States
United States
that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world,[4] with more than 57,000 members.[5]Contents1 History 2 Membership 3 Governing structure3.1 Activities3.1.1 Divisions 3.1.2 Notable offices 3.1.3 Notable sub-organizations3.2 Affiliates 3.3 National outreach3.3.1 Awards 3.3.2 Conferences 3.3.3 Notable Members4 Political positions4.1 Intellectual freedom 4.2 Privacy4.2.1 1970s 4.2.2 1980s 4.2.3 USA PATRIOT Act4.3 Copyright5 ALA-Accredited Programs in Library
Library
and Information Studies 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey
Melvil Dewey
(Melvil Dui), Fred B
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Library Of Congress
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
(LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States
United States
Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.[3] The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
claims to be the largest library in the world.[4][5] Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
The Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(German: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmɔʁɡənˌlɛndɪʃə ɡəˈzɛlʃaft], German Oriental Society), abbreviated DMG, is a scholarly organization dedicated to Oriental studies, that is, to the study of the languages and cultures of the Near East
Near East
and the Far East, the broader Orient, Asia, Oceania, and Africa. The DMG was established on 2 October 1845 in Leipzig
Leipzig
by leading Oriental scholars from Germany, as well as members of other Orientalist societies such as the Asiatic Societies in Paris
Paris
(the Société Asiatique), London
London
(the Royal Asiatic Society), and Calcutta (the Asiatic Society)
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Hans Wehr
Hans Bodo Gerhardt Wehr (German: [hans veːɐ̯]; 5 July 1909, Leipzig – 24 May 1981, Münster)[1] was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster
Münster
from 1957–1974, he published the Arabisches Wörterbuch (1952), which was later published in an English edition as A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J Milton Cowan. Today, the work is regarded as the standard scholarly dictionary of Arabic for English-speaking students and scholars of the language. For the dictionary Wehr created a transliteration scheme to represent the Arabic alphabet. The latest edition of the dictionary was published in 1995 and is Arabic–German only. References[edit]^ Eisenstein, H. (1981–1982). " Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr
(5. Juli 1909 bis 24. Mai 1981)". Archiv für Orientforschung
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Arabist
An Arabist
Arabist
is someone normally from outside the Arab World
Arab World
who specialises in the study of the Arabic language
Arabic language
and culture (usually including Arabic literature).Contents1 Origins 2 Arabists and the Reconquista 3 Eclipse and renewal of Spanish Arabists 4 Arabists elsewhere in Europe4.1 Richard Francis Burton 4.2 Lady Hester Stanhope 4.3 Gertrude Bell 4.4 St John Philby 4.5 Hans Wehr5 Arabists in the Middle East 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOrigins[edit] See also: Al Andalus Arabists began in medieval Muslim Spain, which lay on the frontier between the Muslim world
Muslim world
and Christendom. At various times, either a Christian or a Muslim kingdom might be the most hospitable toward scholars
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Encyclopaedia Of Islam
The Encyclopaedia
Encyclopaedia
of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies
Islamic studies
published by Brill. It is considered to be the standard reference work in the field of Islamic studies.[1] The first edition was published in 1913–1938, the second in 1954–2005, and the third was begun in 2007.Contents1 Content 2 Standing 3 Editions3.1 1st edition, EI1 3.2 SEI 3.3 2nd edition, EI2 3.4 3rd edition, EI34 Urdu
Urdu
translation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksContent[edit] According to Brill, the EI includes "articles on distinguished Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography, flora and fauna of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities
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Deutsches Institut Für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
Deutsches Institut für Normung
e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body. DIN is a German Registered Association (e.V.) headquartered in Berlin. There are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering nearly every field of technology.Contents1 History 2 DIN standard designation 3 Examples of DIN standards 4 See also 5 External linksHistory[edit] Founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuß der deutschen Industrie (NADI, "Standardisation Committee of German Industry"), the NADI was renamed Deutscher Normenausschuß (DNA, "German Standardisation Committee") in 1926 to reflect that the organization now dealt with standardization issues in many fields; viz., not just for industrial products
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Arabic Script
The Arabic
Arabic
script is the writing system used for writing Arabic language and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish and prior to the Turkish language
Turkish language
reform was written in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.[3] The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads.[citation needed] The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam
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Hans Wehr Transliteration
The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for transliteration of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
into the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
used in the Hans Wehr dictionary (1952; in English 1961). The system was modified somewhat in the English editions. It is printed in lowercase italics. It marks some consonants using diacritics (underdot, macron below, and caron) rather than digraphs, and writes long vowels with macrons. The transliteration of the Arabic alphabet:Letter Name Transliteration Eng
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ISO 233
The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic and Syriac transliteration (Romanization)
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