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Arabian Plate
The Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres. It is one of three continental plates (the African, Arabian, and Indian Plates) that have been moving northward in recent geological history and colliding with the Eurasian Plate
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Paleozoic
The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
(or Palaeozoic) Era ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/;[1][2] from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life"[3]) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Red Sea
The Red Sea
Red Sea
(also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb
Bab el Mandeb
strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
(leading to the Suez
Suez
Canal). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2),[1][2] is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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Fault (geology)
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface
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Cenozoic
The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era ( /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk, ˌsɛ-/)[1][2] is the current geological era, covering the period from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
is also known as the Age of Mammals, because of the large mammals that dominate it. The continents also moved into their current positions during this era.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Divisions2.1 Paleogene Period 2.2 Neogene 2.3 Quaternary3 Animal life 4 Tectonics 5 Climate 6 Life 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature[edit] Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life."[3] The era is also known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic
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Oligocene
The Oligocene
Oligocene
( /ˈɒlɪɡoʊsiːn/) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos, "few") and καινός (kainós, "new"),[2] and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Himalayas
The Himalayas, or Himalaya
Himalaya
(/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including all of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
(Aconcagua, in the Andes) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall.[1] Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long.[2] Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus
Indus
river
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Harrat Khaybar
Harrat Khaybar is a volcanic field located north of Medina in Saudi Arabia. It covers approximately 12,000 km2. The most recent eruption occurred between 600 and 700 CE. Researchers using satellite imagery have discovered evidence of man-made structures (for example, 25°40′38″N 39°57′52″E / 25.67722°N 39.96444°E / 25.67722; 39.96444) which may date from 7,000 years ago or earlier in the lava fields.[1] See also[edit]Saudi Arabia portalList of volcanoes in Saudi ArabiaSources[edit]^ Sean Martin (October 18, 2017). "GATES TO HELL? Hundreds of ancient structures found on edge of VOLCANOES in Saudi Arabia". Daily Express. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "Harrat Khaybar". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.  "Harrat Khybar". NASA. Retrieved 20 May 2013. This article about the geography of Saudi Arabia is a stub
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Pyrenees
The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
(/ˈpɪrɪniːz/; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos], French: Pyrénées [piʁene], Aragonese: Pirineus, Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛus], Occitan: Pirenèus, Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe
Europe
that forms a natural border between Spain
Spain
and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(Cap de Creus). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain
Spain
and France, with the microstate of Andorra
Andorra
sandwiched in between
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Convergent Boundary
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle. This is in contrast to a constructive plate boundary (also known as a mid-ocean ridge or spreading center). As a result of pressure, friction, and plate material melting in the mantle, earthquakes and volcanoes are common near destructive boundaries, where subduction zones or an area of continental collision (depending on the nature of the plates involved) occurs. The subducting plate in a subduction zone is normally oceanic crust, and moves beneath the other plate, which can be made of either oceanic or continental crust. During collisions between two continental plates, large mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas
Himalayas
are formed
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Harrat Rahat
Harrat Rahat is a volcanic lava field in Saudi Arabia. In 1256 AD a 0.5 cu km lava flow erupted from six aligned scoria cones and traveled 23 km to within 4 km of the holy city of Medina: this was its last eruption. There were earlier eruptions. It is the biggest lava field in Saudi Arabia. Nearby is the Al Wahbah crater. See also[edit]Saudi Arabia portalList of volcanoes in Saudi ArabiaExternal links[edit]"Harrat Rahat". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. This article about the geography of Saudi Arabia is a stub
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Medina
Medina
Medina
(/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca. Medina
Medina
was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire, under Muhammad's leadership
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Eastern Hemisphere
The Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London) and west of the antimeridian. It is also used to refer to Afro-Eurasia ( Africa
Africa
and Eurasia) and Australia, in contrast with the Western Hemisphere, which includes mainly North and South America. This hemisphere may also be called the "Oriental Hemisphere". In addition, it may be used in a cultural or geopolitical sense as a synonym for the "Old World".Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 References 4 External linksGeography[edit] The line demarcating the Eastern and Western Hemispheres is an arbitrary convention, unlike the Equator
Equator
(an imaginary line encircling Earth, equidistant from its poles), which divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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