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Arab Agricultural Revolution
The Arab
Arab
agricultural revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World. The agronomic literature of the time, with major books by Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, demonstrates the extensive diffusion of useful plants to Medieval Spain (al-Andalus), and the growth in Islamic scientific knowledge of agriculture and horticulture. Medieval Arab
Arab
historians and geographers described al-Andalus as a fertile and prosperous region with abundant water, full of fruit from trees such as the olive and pomegranate. Archaeological evidence demonstrates improvements in animal husbandry and in irrigation such as with the sakia water wheel
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Al-Idrisi
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply Al-Idrisi /ælɪˈdriːsiː/ (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي‎; Latin: Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab
Arab
Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily
Sicily
at the court of King Roger
King Roger
II
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Grape
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil
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Seville
Seville
Seville
(/səˈvɪl/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa], locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville
Seville
has a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011[update], and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain
Spain
and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies
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Grafting
Grafting
Grafting
or graftage[1] is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion (/ˈsaɪən/) while the lower part is called the rootstock. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion or cion.[1] The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type
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Guadalquivir
The Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
(Spanish pronunciation: [ɡwaðalkiˈβir]) is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain. The Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
river is the only great navigable river in Spain. Currently it is navigable from the Gulf of Cádiz
Gulf of Cádiz
to Seville, but in Roman times it was navigable to Córdoba.Contents1 Geography 2 Name 3 History3.1 Flooding 3.2 Pollution4 Dams and bridges 5 Ports 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] The Spanish river is 657 km (408 mi) long and drains an area of about 58,000 km2 (22,000 sq mi)
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Flax
Flax
Flax
( Linum
Linum
usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum
Linum
in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant
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Wheat
References:   Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22 Wheat
Wheat
is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.[1][2][3] There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around 9600 BCE
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Barley
Barley
Barley
( Hordeum
Hordeum
vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia
Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago.[3] Barley
Barley
has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures
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Companion Planting
Companion planting
Companion planting
in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for any of a number of different reasons, including pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.[1] Companion planting
Companion planting
is a form of polyculture. Companion planting
Companion planting
is used by farmers and gardeners in both industrialized and developing countries for many reasons
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Abbadid Dynasty
The Abbadid dynasty or Abbadies (Arabic,بنو عباد) was an Arab Muslim dynasty which arose in Al-Andalus on the downfall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (756–1031)
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Maqamat Al-Hariri
Abū Muhammad al-Qāsim ibn Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Uthmān al-Harīrī (Arabic: أبو محمد القاسم بن علي بن محمد بن عثمان الحريري‎), popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054– 9 September 1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.[1] He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri, a collection of some 50 stories.Contents1 Biography 2 Editions and translations 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born in Basra in modern-day Iraq, he is best known for writing Maqamat al-Hariri (مقامات الحريري, The Assemblies of al-Hariri), a virtuosic display of saj', consisting of 50 anecdotes written in stylized prose, which was once memorized by heart by scholars, and Mulhat al-i'rab fi al-nawh, an extensive poem on grammar.[2] The most famous translation of his maqamat was a German version by the poet and Orientalist Friedrich Rückert as Die Verwandlun
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Melon
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
with sweet edible, fleshy fruit. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit. Botanically, a melon is a kind of berry, specifically a "pepo"
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Antonio Leto
Antonio Leto (June 14, 1844 in Monreale, Sicily – May 31, 1913 in Capri, Italy)[1] was an Italian painter, painting mainly genre/landscape subjects in an impressionistic style. Biography[edit] In 1861, sponsored by his uncle, he moved to study in Palermo under L. Barba and Luigi Lojacono. He adopted the style and subject matter of Filippo Palizzi, In 1864, he moved to Naples where he was attracted to the Scuola of Resina style of painting fostered by Giuseppe De Nittis. He took lessons from A. Cecioni. He painted both in oil, tempera, and watercolor. By 1870, he had won a silver medal at the Mosta Artistica of Palermo with the painting Il Ritorno dal Pascolo and a gold medal at the Regional Exosition of Siracusa for La Bufera. In 1872, he sent A Winter's day in Sicily to the Brera exposition. In 1873, he joined in Portici with other painter of the Scuola di Resina, and travelled to Rome and met Francesco Paolo Michetti
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Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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