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Aptian
The Aptian
Aptian
is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago), approximately
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System (stratigraphy)
A system in stratigraphy is a unit of rock layers that were laid down together within the same corresponding geological period. The associated period is a chronological time unit, a part of the geological time scale, while the system is a unit of chronostratigraphy. Systems are unrelated to lithostratigraphy, which subdivides rock layers on their lithology. Systems are subdivisions of erathems and are themselves divided into series and stages.Contents1 Systems in the geological timescale 2 Multidiscipline comparison 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksSystems in the geological timescale[edit] The systems of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
were defined during the 19th century, beginning with the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(by Belgian geologist Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in the Paris Basin) and the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(by British geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips) in 1822)
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Tithonian
In the geological timescale the Tithonian
Tithonian
is the latest age of the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma (million years ago)
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International Commission On Stratigraphy
The International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale. It is a subordinate body of the International Union of Geological Sciences—of which it is the largest body within the organisation—and of which it is essentially a permanent working subcommittee that meets far more regularly than the quadrennial meetings scheduled by the IUGS, when it meets as a c
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Stratigraphic Column
A stratigraphic column is a representation used in geology and its subfield of stratigraphy to describe the vertical location of rock units in a particular area. A typical stratigraphic column shows a sequence of sedimentary rocks, with the oldest rocks on the bottom and the youngest on top. In areas that are more geologically complex, such as those that contain intrusive rocks, faults, and/or metamorphism, stratigraphic columns can still indicate the relative locations of these units with respect to one another. However, in these cases, the stratigraphic column must either be a structural column, in which the units are stacked with respect to how they are observed in the field to have been moved by the faults, or a time column, in which the units are stacked in the order in which they were formed. Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
is a branch of geology that concerns the order and relative position of geologic strata and their relationship to the geologic time scale
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Annum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Western Europe
Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe
Europe
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Provence
Provence
Provence
(/prəˈvɒns/; French pronunciation: ​[pʁɔ.vɑ̃s]; Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm, pronounced [pʀuˈvɛⁿsɔ]) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône
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Type Locality (geology)
Type locality, also called type area, type site, or type section, is the locality where a particular rock type, stratigraphic unit or mineral species is first identified.[1] If the stratigraphic unit in a locality is layered, it is called a stratotype, whereas the standard of reference for unlayered rocks is the type locality.[2] The term is similar to the term type site in archaeology or the term type specimen in biology.Contents1 Examples of geological type localities1.1 Rocks and minerals 1.2 Formations and structures2 See also 3 ReferencesExamples of geological type localities[edit] Rocks and minerals[edit]Aragonite: Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, Spain Autunite: Autun, France Benmoreite: Ben More (Mull), Scotland[3] Blairmorite: Blairmore, Alberta, Canada Boninite: Bonin Islands, Japan[4] Comendite: Comende, San Pietro Island, Sardinia[5] Coyoteite: Coyote Peak near Orick, California, USA Cummingtonite: Cummington, Massachusetts Dunite: D
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Period (geology)
A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth's history. Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages. The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system.Contents1 Structure 2 Correlation issues 3 See also 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] The twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
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GSSP
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale. The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes. Hence GSSPs are usually described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs. The GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977. As of 2012, 64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined.[1]Contents1 Rules 2 Agreed-upon Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Points 3 Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages 4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksRules[edit] A geologic section has to fulfill a set of criteria to be adapted as a GSSP by the ICS
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Coccolithophore
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective[2]) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga). They belong either to the kingdom Protista, according to Robert Whittaker's Five kingdom classification, or clade Hacrobia, according to the newer biological classification system. Within the Hacrobia, the coccolithophorids are in the phylum or division Haptophyta, class Prymnesiophyceae
Prymnesiophyceae
(or Coccolithophyceae).[3] Coccolithophorids are distinguished by special calcium carbonate plates (or scales) of uncertain function called coccoliths, which are also important microfossils. However, there are Prymnesiophyceae
Prymnesiophyceae
species lacking coccoliths (e.g
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Tethys Ocean
The Tethys Ocean
Tethys Ocean
(Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era located between the ancient continents of
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Ammonite
See textAmmonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea
Ammonoidea
of the class Cephalopoda. These molluscs are more closely related to living coleoids (i.e., octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish) than they are to shelled nautiloids such as the living Nautilus
Nautilus
species. The earliest ammonites appear during the Devonian, and the last species died out during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Ammonites are excellent index fossils, and it is often possible to link the rock layer in which a particular species or genus is found to specific geologic time periods. Their fossil shells usually take the form of planispirals, although there were some helically spiraled and nonspiraled forms (known as heteromorphs). The name "ammonite", from which the scientific term is derived, was inspired by the spiral shape of their fossilized shells, which somewhat resemble tightly coiled rams' horns
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Biozone
Biostratigraphic unit or biozones are intervals of geological strata that are defined on the basis of their characteristic fossil taxa. A biostratigraphic unit may be defined on the basis of a single taxon or combinations of taxa, on relative abundances of taxa, or variations in features related to the distribution of fossils
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