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Apronal
APRONAL (brand name SEDORMID), or APRONALIDE, also known as ALLYLISOPROPYLACETYLUREA or ALLYLISOPROPYLACETYLCARBAMIDE, is a hypnotic /sedative drug of the ureide (acylurea) group synthesized in 1926 by Hoffmann-La Roche
Hoffmann-La Roche
that is no longer used. Though it is not a barbiturate , apronalide is similar in structure to the barbiturates (being an open-chain carbamide instead of having a heterocyclic ring ). In accordance, it is similar in action to the barbiturates, although considerably milder in comparison (formerly used as a daytime sedative at doses of 1 to 2 grams every 3 to 4 hours). Upon the finding that it caused patients to develop thrombocytopenic purpura , apronalide was withdrawn from clinical use. SEE ALSO * Bromoureide REFERENCES * ^ DE Patent 459903 - Verfahren zur Darstellung von Ureiden der Dialkylessigsaeuren * ^ A B Roche Review ... Hoffman-La Roche, and Roche-organon. 1938. p. 164. * ^ R. L
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Alcohol
In chemistry , an ALCOHOL is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–O H ) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages . The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol ) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose ) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Drug
A DRUG is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled , injected , smoked , consumed , absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body. In pharmacology , a pharmaceutical drug , also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat , cure , prevent , or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being . Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants , but more recently also by organic synthesis . Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders . Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures , the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target ), a related mode of action , and that are used to treat the same disease
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC
IUPAC
is a member. The current software version is 1.05 and was released in January 2017. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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Chirality (chemistry)
CHIRALITY /kaɪˈrælɪti/ is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superposable on its mirror image . The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules. The term chirality is derived from the Greek word for hand, χειρ (kheir). The mirror images of a chiral molecule/ion are called enantiomers or OPTICAL ISOMERS . Individual enantiomers are often designated as either "right- " or "left-handed". Chirality is an essential consideration when discussing the stereochemistry in organic and inorganic chemistry . The concept is of great practical importance because most biomolecules and pharmaceuticals are chiral
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Racemic Mixture
In chemistry , a RACEMIC MIXTURE, or RACEMATE /reɪˈsimeɪt/ , is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. The first known racemic mixture was racemic acid , which Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid . A sample with only a single enantiomer is an enantiomerically pure, enantiopure or homochiral compound. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Nomenclature * 3 Properties * 4 Crystallization * 5 Resolution * 6 Synthesis * 7 Racemic
Racemic
pharmaceuticals * 8 Wallach\'s rule * 9 See also * 10 References ETYMOLOGYFrom racemic acid found in grapes; from Latin racemus, meaning a bunch of grapes. NOMENCLATUREA racemic mixture is denoted by the prefix (±)- or DL- (for sugars the prefix DL- may be used), indicating an equal (1:1) mixture of dextro and levo isomers
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Hoffmann-La Roche
F. HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE AG is a Swiss multinational healthcare company that operates worldwide under two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics . Its holding company , ROCHE HOLDING AG, has bearer shares listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange
SIX Swiss Exchange
. The company headquarters are located in Basel
Basel
. The company controls the American biotechnology company Genentech
Genentech
, which is a wholly owned affiliate, and the Japanese biotechnology company Chugai Pharmaceuticals , as well as the United States-based Ventana . Roche's revenues during fiscal year 2016 were 50.58 billion Swiss francs , or approximately US$50 billion. Roche is the third-largest pharma company worldwide
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Route Of Administration
A ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract)
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Thrombocytopenic Purpura
THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA are purpura associated with a reduction in circulating blood platelets which can result from a variety of causes, such as kaposi sarcoma . CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESBy tradition, the term idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is used when the cause is idiopathic . However, most cases are now considered to be immune -mediated. Another form is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura . DIAGNOSIS THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017) Diagnosis is done by the help of symptoms and only blood count abnormality is thrombocytopenia. TREATMENT THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Heterocyclic Ring
A HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUND or RING STRUCTURE is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s). HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these HETEROCYCLES. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related materials), and many natural and synthetic dyes. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 3-membered rings * 3 4-membered rings * 4 5-membered rings * 5 6-membered rings * 6 7-membered rings * 7 8-membered rings * 8 9-membered rings * 9 Images * 10 Fused rings * 11 History of heterocyclic chemistry * 12 Uses * 13 References * 14 External links CLASSIFICATIONAlthough heterocyclic chemical compounds may be inorganic compounds or organic compounds, most contain at least one carbon
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Carbamide
50g/L ethanol ~4 g/L acetonitrile Basicity (pKb) 13.9 Magnetic susceptibility (χ) -33.4·10−6 cm3/mol STRUCTURE Dipole moment 4.56 D THERMOCHEMISTRYCRC HANDBOOK Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298) -79.634 kcal/mol Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚) -47.12 kcal/mol PHARMACOLOGY ATC code B05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01 (WHO) HAZARDS Safety data sheet JT Baker Flash point Non-flammable Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose ) 8500 mg/kg (oral, rat) RELATED COMPOUNDS Related ureas Thiourea Hydroxycarbamide Related compounds Carbamide peroxide Urea phosphate Acetone Carbonic acid Carbonyl fluoride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references UREA, also known as CARBAMIDE, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C O (N H 2)2
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Chemical Structure
A CHEMICAL STRUCTURE determination includes a chemist\'s specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together, and can be represented using structural formulae and by molecular models ; complete electronic structure descriptions include specifying the occupation of a molecule's molecular orbitals . Structure determination can be applied to a range of targets from very simple molecules (e.g., diatomic oxygen or nitrogen ), to very complex ones (e.g., such as of protein or DNA
DNA
). Theories of chemical structure were first developed by August Kekule , Archibald Scott Couper , and Aleksandr Butlerov , among others, from about 1858
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux
Linux
, and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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