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Apronal
Apronal
Apronal
(brand name Sedormid), or apronalide, also known as allylisopropylacetylurea or allylisopropylacetylcarbamide, is a hypnotic/sedative drug of the ureide (acylurea) group synthesized in 1926[1] by Hoffmann-La Roche
Hoffmann-La Roche
that is no longer used, but only used in Japan
Japan
(See Japanese article)
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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality
Chirality
/kaɪˈrælɪti/ is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superimposable on its mirror image. The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules.[1][2][3][4] The term chirality is derived from the Greek word for hand, χειρ (kheir). The mirror images of a chiral molecule/ion are called enantiomers or optical isomers. Individual enantiomers are often designated as either right-handed or left-handed. Chirality
Chirality
is an essential consideration when discussing the stereochemistry in organic and inorganic chemistry
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Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Thrombocytopenic purpura are purpura associated with a reduction in circulating blood platelets which can result from a variety of causes,[1] such as kaposi sarcoma.Contents1 Types 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes[edit] By tradition, the term idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is used when the cause is idiopathic. However, most cases are now considered to be immune-mediated. Another form is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Diagnosis[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)Diagnosis is done by the help of symptoms and only blood count abnormality is thrombocytopenia. Treatment[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it
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Heterocyclic Ring
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).[1] Heterocyclic chemistry is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these heterocycles.[2] Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related materials), and many natural and synthetic dyes.Contents1 Classification 2 3-membered rings 3 4-membered rings 4 5-membered rings 5 6-membered rings 6 7-membered rings 7 8-membered rings 8 9-membered rings 9 Images 10 Fused rings 11 History of heterocyclic chemistry 12 Uses 13 References 14 External linksClassification[edit] Although heterocyclic chemical compounds may be inorganic compounds or organic compounds, most contain at least one carbon
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Carbamide
50g/L ethanol ~4 g/L acetonitrile[3]Basicity (pKb) 13.9[4] Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-33.4·10−6 cm3/molStructureDipole moment4.56 DThermochemistryCRC HandbookStd enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)-79.634 kcal/molGibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)-47.12 kcal/molPharmacologyATC codeB05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet JT BakerNFPA 7041 2 0Flash point Non-flammableLethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)8500 mg/kg (oral, rat)Related compoundsRelated ureasThiourea HydroxycarbamideRelated compounds
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Chemical Structure
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Hoffmann-La Roche
Coordinates: 47°33′31″N 7°36′22″E / 47.558624°N 7.606018°E / 47.558624; 7.606018Roche Holding AGTypeAktiengesellschaftTraded as SIX: ROGIndustry PharmaceuticalsFounded 1896; 122 years ago (1896)Founder Fritz Hoffmann-La RocheHeadquarters Basel, SwitzerlandKey people Christoph Franz
Christoph Franz
(Chairman of the board), André Hoffmann (Vice-Chairman),
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Drug
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.[2][3] In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[2] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[4] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[5] Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.[6][verification needed][7] The Anatomical Therape
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community
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Racemic Mixture
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate /reɪˈsimeɪt/, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. The first known racemic mixture was racemic acid, which Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found to be a mixture of the two enantiomeric isomers of tartaric acid. A sample with only a single enantiomer is an enantiomerically pure, enantiopure or homochiral compound.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Nomenclature 3 Properties 4 Crystallization 5 Resolution 6 Synthesis 7 Racemic
Racemic
pharmaceuticals 8 Wallach's rule 9 See also 10 ReferencesEtymology[edit] From racemic acid found in grapes; from Latin racemus, meaning a bunch of grapes. Nomenclature[edit] A racemic mixture is denoted by the prefix (±)- or dl- (for sugars the prefix dl- may be used), indicating an equal (1:1) mixture of dextro and levo isomers
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