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Approximant Consonant
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough[1] nor with enough articulatory precision[2] to create turbulent airflow
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Voicelessness
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating. Phonologically, it is a type of phonation, which contrasts with other states of the larynx, but some object that the word phonation implies voicing and that voicelessness is the lack of phonation. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
has distinct letters for many voiceless and modally voiced pairs of consonants (the obstruents), such as [p b], [t d], [k ɡ], [q ɢ], [f v], and [s z]. Also, there are diacritics for voicelessness, U+0325  ̥ COMBINING RING BELOW and U+030A  ̊ COMBINING RING ABOVE, which is used for letters with a descender
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Rhotic Consonant
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including ⟨R⟩, ⟨r⟩ in the Latin script
Latin script
and ⟨Р⟩, ⟨p⟩ in the Cyrillic script
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Phonation
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, and use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example
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No Audible Release
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold). In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lack of an audible release is denoted with an upper-right corner diacritic (U+031A ◌̚ COMBINING LEFT ANGLE ABOVE) after the consonant letter: [p̚], [t̚], [k̚].[1] Audibly released stops, on the other hand, are not normally indicated. If a final stop is aspirated, the aspiration diacritic ⟨◌ʰ⟩ is sufficient to indicate the release. Otherwise, the "unaspirated" diacritic of the Extended IPA may be employed for this: apt [ˈæp̚t˭].Contents1 English 2 Other languages2.1 Formosan languages 2.2 rGyalrong languages3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksEnglish[edit] In most dialects of English, the first stop of a cluster has no audible release, as in apt [ˈæp̚t], doctor [ˈdɒk̚tər], or logged on [ˌlɒɡ̚dˈɒn]
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Aspirated Consonant
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.[citation needed] To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say spin [spɪn] and then pin [pʰɪn]
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Phone (phonetics)
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word. Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be discussed only in reference to specific languages. For example, the English words kid and kit end with two distinct phonemes, and swapping one for the other would change the word's meaning. However, the difference between the p sounds in pun (pʰ, with aspiration) and spun (p, no aspiration) never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are phones and not phonemes
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Speech Organ
Speech organs or articulators, produce the sounds of language. Organs used for speech include the lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), uvula, glottis and various parts of the tongue. They can be divided into two types: passive articulators and active articulators. Active articulators move relative to passive articulators, which remain still, to produce various speech sounds, in particular manners of articulation.[1] The upper lip, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, and pharynx wall are passive articulators. The most important active articulator is the tongue as it is involved in the production of the majority of sounds. The lower lip is another active articulator
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Nonexplosive Stop
In phonetics and phonology, nonexplosive stops are posited class of non-pulmonic[citation needed] ("non-obstruent") stop consonants that lack the pressure build-up and burst release associated with pulmonic stops, but also the laryngeal lowering of implosive stops. They are reported to occur in Ikwere, an Igboid (Niger–Congo) language of Nigeria. Ikwere's two nonexplosive stops, transcribed as voiced ⟨ḅ⟩ and pre-glottalized ⟨ʼḅ⟩, are reflexes of labial-velars /k͡p/ and /ɡ͡b/, respectively, in most other Igboid languages, and to implosives /ɓ̥/ and /ɓ/ in some varieties of Igbo. Ikwere's stops resemble both, in that they are velarized and have a non-pulmonic airstream mechanism.[clarification needed] References[edit]Clements, George N.; Osu, Sylvester (2002). "Explosives, implosives, and nonexplosives: Some linguistic effects of air pressure differences in stops". In Carlos Gussenhoven and Natasha Warner. Laboratory Phonology
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Peter Ladefoged
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (English: /ˈlædɪfoʊɡɪd/;[1] Danish: [pedɐ nelsn̩ ˈlæːðfowð]; 17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.[2] He was active at the universities of Edinburgh, Scotland
Scotland
and Ibadan, Nigeria
Nigeria
1953–61.[3] At Edinburgh he studied phonetics with David Abercrombie, who himself had studied with Daniel Jones and was thus connected to Henry Sweet.[4] At the time of his death, he was Professor of Phonetics Emeritus at University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Los Angeles
(UCLA), where he taught from 1962 to 1991
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Indo-European Ablaut
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced /ˈæblaʊt/) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language
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Ingressive Sound
In phonetics, ingressive sounds are sounds by which the airstream flows inward through the mouth or nose. The three types of ingressive sounds are lingual ingressive or velaric ingressive (from the tongue and the velum), glottalic ingressive (from the glottis), and pulmonic ingressive (from the lungs). The opposite of an ingressive sound is an egressive sound, by which the air stream is created by pushing air out through the mouth or nose
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Egressive Sound
In human speech, egressive sounds are sounds by which the air stream is created by pushing air out through the mouth or nose. The three types of egressive sounds are pulmonic egressive (from the lungs), glottalic egressive (from the glottis), and lingual (velaric) egressive (from the tongue). The opposite of an egressive sound is an ingressive sound, by which the airstream flows inward through the mouth or nose.Contents1 Pulmonic egressive 2 Glottalic egressive 3 Lingual egressive 4 See also 5 ReferencesPulmonic egressive[edit] Pulmonic egressive sounds are those in which the air stream is created by the lungs, ribs, and diaphragm. The majority of sounds in most languages, such as vowels, are both pulmonic and egressive
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Syllable Coda
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Occlusive
In phonetics, an occlusive, sometimes known as a stop, is a consonant sound produced by blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract. The duration of the block is the occlusion of the consonant
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Vibrant Consonant
In phonetics, a vibrant is a class of consonant including taps and trills. Spanish has two vibrants, /r/ and /ɾ/, while most English dialects have one, /ɾ/. The term is sometimes used when it is not clear whether the rhotic (r-sound) in a language is a tap or a trill.This phonetics article is a stub
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