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Apostolic Tradition
The Apostolic Tradition
Apostolic Tradition
(or Egyptian Church Order) is an early Christian
Christian
treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders. It has been described as of "incomparable importance as a source of information about church life and liturgy in the third century".[1] Re-discovered in the 19th century, it was given the name of Egyptian Church Order. In the first half of 20th century this text was commonly identified with the lost Apostolic Tradition
Apostolic Tradition
presumed by Hippolytus of Rome. Due to this attribution, and the apparent early date of the text, this manual played a crucial role in the liturgical reforms of main mainstream Christian
Christian
bodies
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Sacred Tradition
Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church
Christian Church
and of the Bible. The word "tradition" is taken from the Latin
Latin
trado, tradere, meaning "to hand over, to deliver, to bequeath". The teachings of Jesus Christ and the holy Apostles are preserved in writing in the Scriptures
Scriptures
as well as word of mouth and are handed on. This perpetual handing on of the Tradition is called the Living Tradition; it is the faithful and constant transmission of the teachings of the Apostles from one generation to the next
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Themista Of Lampsacus
Themista of Lampsacus
Lampsacus
(Greek: Θεμίστη), the wife of Leonteus, was a student of Epicurus, early in the 3rd century BC.[1] Epicurus' school was unusual in the 3rd century, in that it allowed women to attend, and we also hear of Leontion attending Epicurus' school around the same time. Cicero
Cicero
ridicules Epicurus
Epicurus
for writing "countless volumes in praise of Themista," instead of more worthy men such as Miltiades, Themistocles
Themistocles
or Epaminondas.[2] Themista and Leonteus named their son Epicurus.[3] Notes[edit]^ Diogenes Laertius, x. 25, 26 ^ Cicero, De Finibus, 2. 21. 68 ^ Diogenes Laertius, x. 26References[edit]Diogenes Laertius, 10. 5, 25, 26 Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 3. 25. 15 Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 4. 121. 4 Cicero, In Pisonem, 26. 63; De Finibus, 2. 21
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Eucharist
The Eucharist
Eucharist
(/ˈjuːkərɪst/; also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian
Christian
rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ
Christ
during his Last Supper; giving his disciples bread and wine during the Passover
Passover
meal, Jesus
Jesus
commanded his followers to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the wine as "my blood".[1][2] Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper.[3] The elements of the Eucharist, bread (leavened or unleavened) and wine (or grape juice), are consecrated on an altar (or table) and consumed thereafter
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Ancient Roman
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Eduard Schwartz
Eduard Schwartz (22 August 1858 – 13 February 1940) was a German classical philologist. Born in Kiel, he studied under Hermann Sauppe in Göttingen, under Hermann Usener and Franz Bücheler in Bonn, under Theodor Mommsen in Berlin and under Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Greifswald. In 1880 he obtained his doctorate from the University of Bonn.[1] In 1884 he became a lecturer in Bonn, afterwards being appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Rostock (1887). This was followed by professorships at the Universities of Giessen (1893), Strasbourg (1897), Göttingen (1902) and Freiburg (1909). In 1914 he returned to Strasbourg, where he served as university rector in 1915/16
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Pirro Ligorio
Pirro Ligorio
Pirro Ligorio
(c. 1512/1513 - 30 October 1583) was an Italian architect, painter, antiquarian, and garden designer during the Renaissance period. He worked as the Vatican’s Papal Architect under Popes Paul IV and Pius IV, designed the fountains at Villa d’Este at Tivoli for Cardinal Ippolito II d’Este, and served as the Ducal Antiquary in Ferrara. Ligorio emphasized and showed a deep passion for classical Roman antiquity.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Career at the Vatican2.1 Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
(1555-1559) 2.2 Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
(1559-1565) 2.3 Imprisonment 2.4 Pope Pius V (1566-1572)3 Ferrara3.1 Ippolito II d'Este 3.2 Villa d'Este 3.3 Alfonso II d'Este4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Due to lack of accurate documentation, very little is known about the first three decades of Ligorio’s life
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Campo Verano
The Campo Verano (Italian: Cimitero del Verano) is a cemetery in Rome, Italy, founded in the early 19th century. The cemetery is currently divided into sections: the Jewish cemetery, the Catholic cemetery, and the monument to the victims of World War I.Contents1 History 2 Burials 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Verano (officially the "Communal Monumental Cemetery of Campo Verano") is located in the quartiere Tiburtino of Rome, near the Basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le mura. The name verano refers to the Ancient Roman campo dei Verani that was located here. The zone contained ancient Christian catacombs
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Vatican Library
Outline, Index Vatican City
Vatican City
portalv t eThe Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
(Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library
Library
or simply the Vat,[1] is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history,[2] as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. The Vatican Library
Library
is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology
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Paschal Cycle
The Paschal cycle, in the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the cycle of the moveable feasts built around Pascha (Easter). The cycle consists of approximately ten weeks before and seven weeks after Pascha. The ten weeks before Pascha are known as the period of the Triodion (referring to the liturgical book that contains the services for this liturgical season). This period includes the three weeks preceding Great Lent (the "pre-Lenten period"), the forty days of Lent, and Holy Week. The 50 days following Pascha are called the Pentecostarion (again, named after the liturgical book). The Sunday of each week has a special commemoration, named for the Gospel reading assigned to that day. Certain other weekdays have special commemorations of their own (see outline, below). The entire cycle revolves around Pascha. The weeks before Pascha end on Sunday (i.e., the Week of the Prodigal Son begins on the Monday that follows the Publican and the Pharisee)
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Charismata
In Christianity, a spiritual gift or charism (plural: charisms or charismata; in Greek singular: χάρισμα charisma, plural: χαρίσματα charismata) is an endowment which is given by the Holy Spirit.[2] These are the supernatural graces which individual Christians need (or needed in the days of the Apostles) to fulfill the mission of the Church.[3][4] In the narrowest sense, it is a theological term for the extraordinary graces given to individual Christians for the good of others and is distinguished from the graces given for personal sanctification, such as the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit and the fruit of the Holy Spirit.[1] These extraordinary spiritual gifts, often termed "charismatic gifts", are the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, increased faith, the gifts of healing, the gift of miracles, prophecy, the discernment of spirits, diverse kinds of tongues, interpretation of tongues
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Pantheon, Rome
The Pantheon (/ˈpænθiən/ or US: /ˈpænθiɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa
Marcus Agrippa
during the reign of Augustus
Augustus
(27 BC – 14 AD). The present building was completed by the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
and probably dedicated about 126 AD. He retained Agrippa's original inscription, which has caused confusion over its date of construction as the original Pantheon burned down, so it is not certain when the present one was built.[2] The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Pseudepigraph
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.[1] Pseudepigraphy covers the false ascription of names of authors to works, even to authentic works that make no such claim within their text. Thus a widely accepted but incorrect attribution of authorship may make a completely authentic text pseudepigraphical. Assessing the actual writer of a text locates questions of pseudepigraphical attribution within the discipline of literary criticism. In biblical studies, the term pseudepigrapha typically refers to an assorted collection of Jewish religious works thought to be written c. 300 BC to 300 AD
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Canon Law
Canon law
Canon law
(from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.[1] The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches
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