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Apostolic Tradition
The APOSTOLIC TRADITION (or Egyptian Church Order) is an early Christian
Christian
treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders . It has been described as of "incomparable importance as a source of information about church life and liturgy in the third century". Re-discovered in the 19th century, it was given the name of Egyptian Church Order. In the first half of 20th century this text was commonly identified with the lost Apostolic Tradition
Apostolic Tradition
presumed by Hippolytus of Rome
Rome
. Due to this attribution, and the apparent early date of the text, this manual played a crucial role in the liturgical reforms of main mainstream Christian
Christian
bodies. The attribution of this text to Hippolytus has since become a subject of continued debate in recent scholarship
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Eduard Schwartz
EDUARD SCHWARTZ (22 August 1858 – 13 February 1940) was a German classical philologist . Born in Kiel
Kiel
, he studied under Hermann Sauppe in Göttingen , under Hermann Usener
Hermann Usener
and Franz Bücheler
Franz Bücheler
in Bonn , under Theodor Mommsen
Theodor Mommsen
in Berlin and under Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
in Greifswald . In 1880 he obtained his doctorate from the University of Bonn. In 1884 he became a lecturer in Bonn, afterwards being appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Rostock
University of Rostock
(1887). This was followed by professorships at the Universities of Giessen (1893), Strasbourg (1897), Göttingen (1902) and Freiburg (1909). In 1914 he returned to Strasbourg, where he served as university rector in 1915/16
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Pirro Ligorio
PIRRO LIGORIO (c. 1512/1513 - 30 October 1583) was an Italian architect, painter, antiquarian, and garden designer during the Renaissance period. He worked as the Vatican’s Papal Architect under Popes Paul IV and Pius IV , designed the fountains at Villa d’Este at Tivoli for Cardinal Ippolito II d’Este, and served as the Ducal Antiquary in Ferrara
Ferrara
. Ligorio emphasized and showed a deep passion for classical Roman antiquity
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Campo Verano
The CAMPO VERANO (Italian: Cimitero del Verano) is a cemetery in Rome , Italy
Italy
, founded in the early 19th century. The cemetery is currently divided into sections: the Jewish cemetery, the Catholic cemetery, and the monument to the victims of World War I
World War I
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Burials * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe Verano (officially the "Communal Monumental Cemetery
Cemetery
of Campo Verano") is located in the quartiere Tiburtino of Rome, near the Basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le mura . The name verano refers to the Ancient Roman campo dei Verani that was located here. The zone contained ancient Christian catacombs
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Vatican Library
Outline of Vatican City
Vatican City
WikiProject Vatican City
Vatican City
Vatican City portal * v * t * e The VATICAN APOSTOLIC LIBRARY ( Latin
Latin
: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the VATICAN LIBRARY or simply the VAT, is the library of the Holy See
Holy See
, located in Vatican City
Vatican City
. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history, as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula . The Vatican Library
Library
is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology
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Ancient Roman
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire
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Eucharist
The EUCHARIST /ˈjuːkərɪst/ (also called HOLY COMMUNION or the LORD\'S SUPPER, among other names) is a Christian
Christian
rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament
New Testament
, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ
Christ
during his Last Supper
Last Supper
; giving his disciples bread and wine during the Passover meal , Jesus
Jesus
commanded his followers to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the wine as "my blood". Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember Christ\'s sacrifice of himself on the cross. The elements of the Eucharist, bread (leavened or unleavened) and wine (or grape juice ), are consecrated on an altar (or table ) and consumed thereafter
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Canons Of Hippolytus
The CANONS OF HIPPOLYTUS is a Christian text composed of 38 decrees ("canons ") of the genre of the Church Orders . The work has been dated to between 336 and 340 A.D., though a slightly later date is sometimes proposed. Egypt is regarded as the place of origin. The author is unknown, though the work presents its author as "Hippolytus , the high bishop of Rome , according to the instructions of the Apostles ". It contains instructions in regard to the choice and ordination of Christian ministers; regulations as to widows and virgins; conditions required of pagan converts; preparation for and administration of baptism , rules for the celebration of the Eucharist , for fasting, daily prayers, charity suppers, memorial meals, first-fruits, etc
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Testamentum Domini
TESTAMENTUM DOMINI ("Testament of our Lord") is a Christian treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders . The work can be dated about the 5th-century CE even if a 4th-century date is sometimes proposed. The provenience is regarded as Syria , even if also Egypt or Asia Minor are possible origins. CONTENTS * 1 Author and date * 2 Manuscript Tradition * 3 Content * 4 Doctrine * 5 Notes * 6 Studies * 7 External links AUTHOR AND DATEThe author is unknown, even if the work declares to be the legacy left by Jesus Christ himself to his Apostles before the Ascension , and to give his own words and commands as to the government of the Church
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Sacred Tradition
SACRED TRADITION or HOLY TRADITION is a theological term used in some Christian traditions , primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Assyrian , and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church
Christian Church
and of the scriptures . The word "tradition" is taken from the Latin
Latin
trado, tradere meaning "to hand over, to deliver, to bequeath". The teachings of Jesus Christ and the holy Apostles are preserved in writing in the Scriptures as well as word of mouth and are handed on. This perpetual handing-on of the Tradition is called a living Tradition; it is the faithful and constant transmission of the teachings of the Apostles from one generation to the next
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Epitome
An EPITOME (/ᵻˈpɪtəmiː/ ; Greek : ἐπιτομή, from ἐπιτέμνειν epitemnein meaning "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form, or an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiments. Epitomacy represents, "to the degree of." An abridgment differs from an epitome in that an abridgment is made of selected quotations of a larger work; no new writing is composed, as opposed to the epitome, which is an original summation of a work, at least in part. Many documents from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds survive now only "in epitome", referring to the practice of some later authors (epitomators) who wrote distilled versions of larger works now lost. Some writers attempted to convey the stance and spirit of the original, while others added further details or anecdotes regarding the general subject. As with all secondary historical sources, a different bias not present in the original may creep in
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Paschal Cycle
The PASCHAL CYCLE, in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, is the cycle of the moveable feasts built around Pascha (Easter). The cycle consists of approximately ten weeks before and seven weeks after Pascha. The ten weeks before Pascha are known as the period of the Triodion (referring to the liturgical book that contains the services for this liturgical season). This period includes the three weeks preceding Great Lent
Great Lent
(the "pre-Lenten period"), the forty days of Lent, and Holy Week . The 50 days following Pascha are called the Pentecostarion (again, named after the liturgical book). The Sunday of each week has a special commemoration, named for the Gospel
Gospel
reading assigned to that day. Certain other weekdays have special commemorations of their own (see outline, below). The entire cycle revolves around Pascha
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Charismata
In Christianity
Christianity
, a SPIRITUAL GIFT or CHARISM (plural: CHARISMS or CHARISMATA; in Greek singular: χάρισμα charisma, plural: χαρίσματα charismata) is an endowment which is given by the Holy Spirit . These are the supernatural graces which individual Christians need (or needed in the days of the Apostles ) to fulfill the mission of the Church . In the narrowest sense, it is a theological term for the extraordinary graces given to individual Christians for the good of others and is distinguished from the graces given for personal sanctification , such as the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit and the fruit of the Holy Spirit . These extraordinary spiritual gifts, often termed "charismatic gifts", are the word of wisdom , the word of knowledge , increased faith , the gifts of healing , the gift of miracles , prophecy , the discernment of spirits , diverse kinds of tongues , interpretation of tongues
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Prologue
A PROLOGUE or PROLOG (Greek πρόλογος prólogos, from pro, "before" and lógos, "word") is an opening to a story that establishes the context and gives background details, often some earlier story that ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information. The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
prólogos included the modern meaning of prologue, but was of wider significance, more like the meaning of preface . The importance, therefore, of the prologue in Greek drama was very great; it sometimes almost took the place of a romance, to which, or to an episode in which, the play itself succeeded. It is believed that the prologue in this form was practically the invention of Euripides
Euripides
, and with him, as has been said, it takes the place of an explanatory first act
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Ordination
ORDINATION is the process by which individuals are consecrated , that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies . The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by religion and denomination . One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination
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Bishop
A BISHOP (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained , consecrated , or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Anglican , Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East , bishops claim apostolic succession , a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles
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