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Apollo 16
Left to right: Mattingly, Young, Duke Apollo program← Apollo 15 Apollo 17 → Apollo 16
Apollo 16
was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon
Moon
and the first to land in the lunar highlands. The second of the so-called "J missions," it was crewed by Commander John Young, Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke
Charles Duke
and Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly. Launched from the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
in Florida
Florida
at 12:54 PM EST on April 16, 1972, the mission lasted 11 days, 1 hour, and 51 minutes, and concluded at 2:45 PM EST on April 27.[2][3][4] Young and Duke spent 71 hours—just under three days—on the lunar surface, during which they conducted three extra-vehicular activities or moonwalks, totaling 20 hours and 14 minutes
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Captain (United States O-6)
In the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (USPHS), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps), captain is the senior-most commissioned officer rank below that of flag officer (i.e., admirals). The equivalent rank is colonel in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps
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Lunar Mare
The lunar maria /ˈmɑːriə/ (singular: mare /ˈmɑːreɪ/)[1] are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. They were dubbed maria, Latin
Latin
for "seas", by early astronomers who mistook them for actual seas. [2] They are less reflective than the "highlands" as a result of their iron-rich composition, and hence appear dark to the naked eye. The maria cover about 16% of the lunar surface, mostly on the side visible from Earth. The few maria on the far side are much smaller, residing mostly in very large craters. The traditional nomenclature for the Moon
Moon
also includes one oceanus (ocean), as well as features with the names lacus (lake), palus (marsh), and sinus (bay)
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Cayley (crater)
Cayley is a small lunar impact crater that is located in a lava-flooded region to the west of Mare Tranquillitatis and is named after the 19th century British mathematician Arthur Cayley. It lies almost directly to the south of the smaller crater De Morgan being about 7 km and the larger D'Arrest. West and 25+ km slightly west of Cayley is Whewell, a crater of about the same dimensions. To the north is a linear rille designated Rima Ariadaeus, which follows a course to the east-southeast.Contents1 Description 2 References 3 External links3.1 Other articlesDescription[edit] This is a circular, bowl-shaped formation with a small interior floor at the midpoint. (Small being relative to the overall diameter, as it occupies about one-fourth the total cross-section.) The sloping interior walls are relatively light in hue, having a higher albedo as the surrounding terrain
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Apsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Astronaut Ranks And Positions
Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries responsibilities that are essential to the operation of a spacecraft. A spacecraft's cockpit, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used to manage the scientific equipment on board, and so on.Contents1 NASA ranks and positions1.1 Ranks 1.2 Positions2 RKA ranks and positions2.1 Ranks 2.2 Positions3 International space station positions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNASA ranks and positions[edit] Ranks[edit] Members of the NASA Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps hold one of two ranks. Astronaut Candidate is the rank of those training to be NASA astronauts. Upon graduation, candidates are promoted to Astronaut
Astronaut
and receive their Astronaut
Astronaut
Pin
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Measles
Measles
Measles
is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.[3][9] Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days.[6][7] Initial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104.0 °F), cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes.[3][4] Small white spots known as Koplik's spots
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Jack Swigert
John Leonard "Jack" Swigert Jr. (August 30, 1931 – December 27, 1982) was an American test pilot, mechanical and aerospace engineer, United States
United States
Air Force pilot, and NASA
NASA
astronaut, one of the 24 people who have flown to the Moon.[2][3] Before joining NASA
NASA
in 1966, Swigert was a civilian test pilot and fighter pilot in the Air National Guard. After leaving NASA, he was elected to Congress from Colorado's new 6th district, but died before being sworn in.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Flight experience 3 NASA
NASA
career3.1 Apollo 13 3.2 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project4 Post- NASA
NASA
career 5 Death 6 Organizations 7 Awards and honors 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Born in Denver, Colorado, with parents John Leonard Swigert Sr. (1903–1973) and Virginia Swigert (1906–1993)
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Cislunar Space
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth
Earth
and between celestial bodies. Outer space
Outer space
is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Gemini 3
(L-R) Grissom, Young Project Gemini← Gemini 2 Gemini 4 →Gemini 3 was the first manned mission in NASA's Gemini program, the second American manned space program. On March 23, 1965, astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young flew three low Earth orbits in their spacecraft, which they nicknamed Molly Brown. This was the ninth manned US spaceflight (including two X-15 flights over 100 kilometers), and the 17th world human spaceflight including eight Soviet flights
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Gemini 10
(L-R) Young, Collins Project Gemini← Gemini 9A Gemini 11 →Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X)[2] was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 8th manned Gemini flight, the 16th manned American flight and the 24th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 kilometers (54 nautical miles).Contents1 Crew1.1 Backup crew 1.2 Support crew2 Mission parameters2.1 Docking 2.2 Space walk3 Objectives 4 Flight4.1 First rendezvous 4.2 EVA 1 4.3 Second rendezvous 4.4 EVA 2 4.5 Experiments 4.6 Re-entry5 Insignia 6 Spacecraft location 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksCrew[edit]Position AstronautCommand Pilot John W. Young Second spaceflightPilot Michael Collins First spaceflightBackup crew[edit]Position AstronautCommand Pilot Alan L. BeanPilot Clifton C. Williams, Jr.Support crew[edit]Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin (Houston CAPCOM) L. Gordon Cooper, Jr
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