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Apollo 15
1 in cislunar space Plus 4 on the lunar surfaceEVA duration39 minutes, 7 seconds Spacewalk
Spacewalk
to retrieve film cassettesStart of missionLaunch date July 26, 1971, 13:34:00.6 (1971-07-26UTC13:34Z) UTCRocket Saturn V
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Epoch (astronomy)
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.[1] These time-varying astronomical quantities might include, for example, the mean longitude or mean anomaly of a body, the node of its orbit relative to a reference plane, the direction of the apogee or aphelion of its orbit, or the size of the major axis of its orbit. The main use of astronomical quantities specified in this way is to calculate other relevant parameters of motion, in order to predict future positions and velocities
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Gamma Ray Spectrometer
A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an instrument for measuring the distribution (or spectrum—see figure) of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon. The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray spectrometers are the instruments which observe and collect such data. Because the energy of each photon of EM radiation is proportional to its frequency, gamma rays have sufficient energy that they are typically observed by counting individual photons.Contents1 Gamma-ray spectroscopy 2 Astronomical spectrometers 3 Planetary gamma-ray spectrometers3.1 How a GRS works 3.2 Water detection 3.3 GRS specifications for the Odyssey mission4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGamma-ray spectroscopy[edit]Laboratory equipment for determination of γ-radiation spectrum with a scintillation counter
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Altimeter
An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. The measurement of altitude is called altimetry, which is related to the term bathymetry, the measurement of depth under water.Contents1 Pressure altimeter1.1 Use in hiking, climbing and skiing 1.2 Skydiving 1.3 Use in aircraft2 Use in ground effect vehicle 3 Sonic altimeter 4 Radar
Radar
altimeter 5 Global Positioning System 6 Other modes of transport 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksPressure altimeter[edit]Digital barometric pressure sensor for altitude measurement in consumer electronic applications Altitude
Altitude
can be determined based on the measurement of atmospheric pressure. The greater the altitude, the lower the pressure. When a barometer is supplied with a nonlinear calibration so as to indicate altitude, the instrument is called a pressure altimeter or barometric altimeter
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Mass Spectrometry
Mass
Mass
spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass
Mass
spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons
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Mercury-Redstone 3
Spacecraft name as painted on the capsule sideAlan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. Project Mercury Manned missions← Mercury-Redstone BD Mercury-Redstone 4 →Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States
United States
human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard. It was the first manned flight of Project Mercury, the objective of which was to put an astronaut into orbit around the Earth and return him safely. Shepard's mission was a 15-minute suborbital flight with the primary objective of demonstrating his ability to withstand the high g-forces of launch and atmospheric re-entry. Shepard named his space capsule Freedom 7, setting a precedent for the remaining six Mercury astronauts naming their spacecraft. The number 7 was included in all the manned Mercury spacecraft names to honor NASA's first group of seven astronauts
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Astronaut Ranks And Positions
Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries responsibilities that are essential to the operation of a spacecraft. A spacecraft's cockpit, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used to manage the scientific equipment on board, and so on.Contents1 NASA ranks and positions1.1 Ranks 1.2 Positions2 RKA ranks and positions2.1 Ranks 2.2 Positions3 International space station positions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNASA ranks and positions[edit] Ranks[edit] Members of the NASA Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps hold one of two ranks. Astronaut Candidate is the rank of those training to be NASA astronauts. Upon graduation, candidates are promoted to Astronaut
Astronaut
and receive their Astronaut
Astronaut
Pin
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United States Air Force
Department of Defense Department of the Air ForceHeadquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.Motto(s) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"[7] "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do"[8]Colors Ultramarine
Ultramarine
blue, Golden yellow[9]          March The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
 Play (help·info)Anniversaries 18 SeptemberEngagementsSee listMexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
Aviation Section, U.S

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United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
(USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point,[6] The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River
Hudson River
with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the four U.S. military service academies, and one of the five U.S. service academies. The Academy traces its roots to 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson directed, shortly after his inauguration, that plans be set in motion to establish the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
at West Point. The entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites, buildings, and monuments
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United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
(also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy
United States Navy
and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn
Fort Severn
at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus (known to insiders as "the Yard") is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments
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Grumman
The Grumman
Grumman
Aircraft
Aircraft
Engineering Corporation, later Grumman
Grumman
Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U.S. producer of military and civilian aircraft
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Rockwell International
Rockwell International
Rockwell International
was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation. Rockwell ultimately became a group of companies founded by Colonel Willard Rockwell. At its peak in the 1990s, Rockwell International
Rockwell International
was No
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NASA Astronaut Group 4
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[1][2] Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies
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