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Apollo-Soyuz
Official emblem of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) chosen by NASA and the Soviet Academy of SciencesSoyuz programme← Soyuz 18 Soyuz 20 →The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
(ASTP) (Russian: Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time. It involved the docking of an Apollo Command/Service Module
Apollo Command/Service Module
with the Soviet Soyuz 19. The unnumbered Apollo vehicle was a surplus from the terminated Apollo program
Apollo program
and the last one to fly
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Christopher C. Kraft
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
"Chris" Kraft Jr. (born February 28, 1924) is an American aerospace engineer and retired NASA
NASA
engineer and manager who was instrumental in establishing the agency's Mission Control operation. Following his graduation from Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
in 1944, Kraft was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(NACA), the predecessor organization to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He worked for over a decade in aeronautical research before being asked in 1958 to join the Space Task Group, a small team entrusted with the responsibility of putting America's first man in space. Assigned to the flight operations division, Kraft became NASA's first flight director
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Premier Of The Soviet Union
The office of Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Twelve individuals became premier over the time span of the office. Two of the twelve premiers died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev), and three held the offices of party leader and premier simultaneously (Lenin, Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). The first premier was Lenin, who was inaugurated in 1922 after the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR. Ivan Silayev
Ivan Silayev
spent the shortest time in office at 126 days in 1991
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Space Exploration
Space exploration
Space exploration
is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality
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Sputnik
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
(/ˈspʊtnɪk/ or /ˈspʌtnɪk/; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite
Satellite
1")[5] was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,[6] and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War
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Solar Eclipse
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon
Moon
passes between the Sun
Sun
and Earth, and when the Moon
Moon
fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun. This can happen only at new moon when the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
are in conjunction as seen from Earth
Earth
in an alignment referred to as syzygy. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun
Sun
is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses, only part of the Sun
Sun
is obscured. If the Moon
Moon
were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every new moon
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Corona
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force. The Corona satellites were used for photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR), the People's Republic of China, and other areas beginning in June 1959 and ending in May 1972
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International Space Station
The International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth
Earth
orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, the last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and the station is expected to be used until 2028. Development and assembly of the station continues, with components scheduled for launch in 2018 and 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth
Earth
orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.[8][9] The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components
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Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System
Space Transportation System
(STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[10] The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida
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Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (Russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин, tr. Aleksej Nikolajevič Kosygin, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksʲej nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsɨɡʲɪn]; 21 February [O.S. 8 February] 1904 – 18 December 1980)[3] was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War. Kosygin was born in the city of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in 1904 to a Russian working-class family. He was conscripted into the labour army during the Russian Civil War, and after the Red Army's demobilisation in 1921, he worked in Siberia
Siberia
as an industrial manager. Kosygin returned to Leningrad
Leningrad
in the early 1930s and worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), Kosygin was a member of the State Defence Committee and was tasked with moving Soviet industry out of territories soon to be overrun by the German Army
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Cold War
The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed
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Vietnam War
North Vietnamese victoryWithdrawal of American-led forces from Indochina Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos South Vietnam
South Viet

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Apollo 14
Roosa, Shepard, Mitchell Apollo program← Apollo 13 Apollo 15 → Apollo 14
Apollo 14
was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon
Moon
with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks. Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell
Edgar Mitchell
launched on their nine-day mission on Sunday, January 31, 1971, at 4:03:02 p.m. EST. Liftoff was delayed forty minutes and two seconds, due to launch site weather restrictions, the first such delay in the Apollo program.[2] Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation - originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission
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Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev[a] (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971)[1][2] was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during part of the Cold War
Cold War
as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev
Khrushchev
was responsible for the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy
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