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Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook
is the highest mountain in New Zealand. Its height since 2014 is listed as 3,724 metres (12,218 feet), down from 3,764 m (12,349 ft) before December 1991, due to a rockslide and subsequent erosion.[2] It lies in the Southern Alps, the mountain range which runs the length of the South Island. A popular tourist destination,[3] it is also a favourite challenge for mountain climbers. Aoraki / Mount Cook
Aoraki / Mount Cook
consists of three summits, from South to North the Low Peak (3,593 m or 11,788 ft), Middle Peak (3,717 m or 12,195 ft) and High Peak
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Tom Fyfe
Thomas Camperdown "Tom" Fyfe (June 23, 1870 in Timaru - 1947 in Hastings)[1] was a self-taught New Zealand mountaineer from Timaru. He led the first ascent of Aoraki/Mount Cook (the highest mountain in New Zealand) on 25 December 1894, which included Jack Clarke and George Graham.[2] Following the first Aoraki ascent Fyfe, who was introduced to climbing by Adamson, went on to become the first appointed Chief Guide at the Hermitage Hotel at Mt Cook village.[3] References[edit]^ https://www.timaru.govt.nz/community/our-district/hall-of-fame/category-three/thomas-fyfe ^ Haynes, J. (1994) Piercing the Clouds. Tom Fyffe: First to climb Mt Cook. Hazard Press, New Zealand, ISBN 0-908790-64-3. ^ History of NZ Guiding, http://www.nzmga.org.nz/pages/8/history-of-nz-guiding.htmAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 14021810 LCCN: n95083346This biographical article relating to climbing or mountaineering is a stub
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Treaty Of Waitangi Claims And Settlements
Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975. Over the last 30 years, New Zealand governments have increasingly provided formal legal and political opportunity for Māori to seek redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi. While it has resulted in putting to rest a number of significant longstanding grievances, the process has been subject to criticisms from a number of angles, from those who believe that the redress is insufficient to compensate for Māori losses, to those who see no value in revisiting painful and contentious historical issues. The settlements are typically seen as part of a broader Māori Renaissance. Because the Treaty of Waitangi has limited legal standing in itself, the primary means of registering and researching Treaty claims is through the Waitangi Tribunal
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Lake Matheson
Lake Matheson, near the Fox Glacier in South Westland, New Zealand, is famous for its reflected views of Aoraki/Mount Cook and Mount Tasman. A traditional mahinga kai (food gathering place) for Māori people, the lake contains long finned eel as well as being home to many water birds.Lake Matheson just after the sunsetContents1 Geography 2 Conservation 3 Photographs 4 External linksGeography[edit] Lake Matheson was formed by glaciation ca. 14,000 years ago
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Orography
Orography
Orography
(from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains,[1] and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.[2] Orography
Orography
(also known as oreography, orology or oreology) falls within the broader discipline of geomorphology.[3]Contents1 Uses 2 Orographic precipitation 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksUses[edit] Mountain ranges and elevated land masses have a major impact on global climate
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Tasman Sea
The Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
(Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua[1]) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. It measures about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) across and about 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) from north to south. The sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, who was the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand
New Zealand
and Tasmania. The British explorer Captain James Cook
James Cook
later extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration.[2] The Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
is informally referred to in both Australian and New Zealand English as The Ditch; for example, crossing the Ditch means travelling to Australia
Australia
from New Zealand, or vice versa
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Ngāi Tahu
Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā (tribal area) is the largest in New Zealand, and extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island
Stewart Island
in the south. These are divided into 18 rūnanga (governance areas) corresponding to traditional settlements. Some definitions of Ngāi Tahu
Ngāi Tahu
include the Waitaha and Kāti Mamoe tribes who lived in the South Island
South Island
prior to the arrival of Kāi Tāhu. The five primary hapū (sub-tribes) of the three tribes are Kāti Kurī, Ngāti Irakehu, Kāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāi Te Ruakihikihi.[2] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament passed the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act in 1998 to record an apology from the Crown and to settle claims made under the Treaty of Waitangi
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Māori Language
Māori (/ˈmaʊri/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi]  listen), also known as Te Reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Since 1987, it has been one of New Zealand's official languages. It is closely related to Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian
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Abel Tasman
Abel Janszoon Tasman (Dutch: [ˈɑbəl ˈjɑnsoːn ˈtɑsmɑn]; 1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC). He was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
(now Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji
Fiji
islands.Contents1 First Pacific voyage1.1 Beach and Terra Australis 1.2 Mauritius 1.3 Tasmania 1.4 New Zealand 1.5 Return voyage2 Second Pacific voyage 3 Later life 4 Legacy 5 Tasman Map 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksFirst Pacific voyage[edit]Portrait of Abel Tasman, his wife and daughter
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John Lort Stokes
Admiral John Lort Stokes, RN (1 August 1811[1] – 11 June 1885)[Notes 1] was an officer in the Royal Navy who travelled on HMS Beagle for close to eighteen years.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Born on 1 August 1811, Stokes grew up in Scotchwell near Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. He joined the Royal Navy on 20 September 1824. The first ship he served on was HMS Prince Regent, and then in October 1825 he joined the crew of the Beagle under Captain Phillip Parker King. The Beagle was involved in a survey of the waters of South America
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James Cook
Captain James Cook
James Cook
FRS (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia
Australia
and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Royal Society
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Tectonics
Tectonics
Tectonics
(from Latin tectonicus; from Ancient Greek τεκτονικός (tektonikos), meaning 'pertaining to building'[1]) is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
and its evolution through time. In particular, it describes the processes of mountain building, the growth and behavior of the strong, old cores of continents known as cratons, and the ways in which the relatively rigid plates that constitute the Earth's outer shell interact with each other. Tectonics also provides a framework for understanding the earthquake and volcanic belts that directly affect much of the global population. Tectonic studies are important as guides for economic geologists searching for fossil fuels and ore deposits of metallic and nonmetallic resources
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Pacific Plate
The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate.[2] The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands.[3] Hillis and Müller are reported to consider the Bird's Head Plate
Bird's Head Plate
to be moving in unison with the Pacific Plate.[4] Bird considers them to be unconnected.[5]Contents1 Boundaries 2 Paleo-geology of the Pacific Plate 3 References 4 External linksBoundaries[edit] The north-eastern side is a divergent boundary with the Explorer Plate, the Juan de Fuca Plate
Juan de Fuca Plate
and the Gorda Plate
Gorda Plate
forming respectively the Explorer Ridge, the Juan de Fuca Ridge
Juan de Fuca Ridge
and the Gorda Ridge
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Indo-Australian Plate
The Indo- Australian Plate
Australian Plate
is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and adjacent waters
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