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Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation
Oxidation
is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects. To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) produced internally or the dietary antioxidants: vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Antioxidant
Antioxidant
dietary supplements do not improve health nor are they effective in preventing diseases
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Metabolomics
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.[1] The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes.[2] mRNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses reveal the set of gene products being produced in the cell, data that represents one aspect of cellular function. Conversely, metabolic profiling can give an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of that cell
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Systematic Review
Systematic reviews are types of literature reviews that collect and critically analyze multiple research studies or papers, using methods that are selected before one or more research questions are formulated, and then finding and analyzing studies that relate to and answer those questions in a structured methodology.[1] They are designed to provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current literature relevant to a research question. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are key in the practice of evidence-based medicine,[2] and a review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study. An understanding of systematic reviews, and how to implement them in practice, is highly recommended for professionals involved in the delivery of health care
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Catechol-O-methyl Transferase
4XUE, 3A7E, 3BWM, 3BWY, 4PYI, 4PYJ, 4PYK, 4XUC, 4XUDIdentifiersAliases COMT, HEL-S-98n, catechol-O-methyltransferaseExternal IDs OMIM: 116790 MGI: 88470 HomoloGene: 30982 GeneCards: COMTGene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome 22 (human)[1]Band 22q11.21 Start 19,941,607 bp[1]End 19,969,975 bp[1]RNA expression patternMore reference expression dataGene ontologyMolecular function • transferase activity • O-methyltransferase activity • metal ion binding • protein binding • magnesium ion binding • catechol O-methyltransferase activity • methyltransferase activity • L-dopa O-methyltransferase activity • orcinol O-methyltransferase activityCellular component • cytoplasm • integral component of membrane • cell body • cytosol • postsynaptic membrane • membrane • plasma membrane • dendritic spine • axon • dendrite • mitochondrion • extracellular exosomeBiological proce
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Receptor (biochemistry)
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration.[2] Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to be incorporated into another biochemical pathway.[2] In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters, and ion channels. Receptor proteins can be classified by their location
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Inflammation
Inflammation
Inflammation
(from Latin
Latin
inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants,[1] and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators
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Gene Regulation
Regulation of gene expression
Regulation of gene expression
includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA
RNA
processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Often, one gene regulator controls another, and so on, in a gene regulatory network. Gene regulation
Gene regulation
is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed
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Neurodegenerative Disease
Neurodegeneration
Neurodegeneration
is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. Many neurodegenerative diseases – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's
Huntington's
– occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration and/or death of neuron cells.[1] As research progresses, many similarities appear that relate these diseases to one another on a sub-cellular level. Discovering these similarities offers hope for therapeutic advances that could ameliorate many diseases simultaneously
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Alzheimers
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
(AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.[1][2] It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.[1][2] The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues.[1][2] As a person's condition declines, they often wit
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Tirilazad
Tirilazad
Tirilazad
is a drug that has been proposed to treat acute ischaemic stroke. When tested on animal models, tirilazad protects brain tissue, and reduces brain damage. However, the drug fails to treat, and even worsens a stroke when studied on a human being.[1] Usage in treatment of stroke[edit] Tirilazad
Tirilazad
currently has no usage in the clinical treatment of stroke. References[edit]^ " Tirilazad
Tirilazad
for acute ischaemic stroke"
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Allopurinol
Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.[1] It is specifically used to prevent gout, prevent specific types of kidney stones, and for the high uric acid levels that can occur with chemotherapy.[2][3] It is taken by mouth or injected into a vein.[3] Common side effects when used by mouth include itchiness and rash.[3] Common side effects when used by injection include vomiting and kidney problems.[3] While not recommended historically, starting allopurinol during an attack of gout appears to be safe.[4] In those already on the medication, it should be continued even during an acute gout attack.[4][2] While use during pregnancy does not appear to result in harm, this use has not been well studied.[5] Allopurinol
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In Vitro
In vitro
In vitro
(meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. Colloquially called "test-tube experiments", these studies in biology and its subdisciplines are traditionally done in labware such as test tubes, flasks, Petri dishes, and microtiter plates. Studies conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms; however, results obtained from in vitro experiments may not fully or accurately predict the effects on a whole organism
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Adverse Effects
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery. An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect. If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication. Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic" because they are generated by a physician/treatment. Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Adverse effects may cause complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis. They may also lead to non-compliance with a treatment regimen
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Phytic Acid
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903,[1] a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.[2] It can be found in cereals and grains. Catabolites of phytic acid are called lower inositol polyphosphates. Examples are inositol penta- (IP5), tetra- (IP4), and triphosphate (IP3).Contents1 Significance in agriculture 2 Biological and physiological roles 3 Food science 4 Medical uses 5 See also 6 ReferencesSignificance in agriculture[edit] Phosphorus and inositol in phytate form are not, in general, bioavailable to nonruminant animals because these animals lack the digestive enzyme phytase required to remove phosphate from the inositol in the phytate molecule
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Antinutrient
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.[1] Nutrition studies focus on those antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages.Contents1 Examples 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingExamples[edit] Protease
Protease
inhibitors are substances that inhibit the actions of trypsin, pepsin and other proteases in the gut, preventing the digestion and subsequent absorption of protein
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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