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Antinomian Controversy
The Antinomian Controversy, also known as the Free Grace Controversy, was a religious and political conflict in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. It pitted most of the colony's ministers and magistrates against some adherents of the Free Grace theology of Puritan minister John Cotton. The most notable Free Grace advocates, often called "Antinomians", were the charismatic Anne Hutchinson, her brother-in-law Reverend John Wheelwright, and the young governor of the colony Henry Vane. The controversy was a theological debate concerning the "covenant of grace" and "covenant of works". Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson
has historically been placed at the center of the controversy, a strong-minded woman situated with the Puritan movement who had grown up under the religious guidance of her father Francis Marbury, an Anglican clergyman and school teacher
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Richard Sibbes
Richard Sibbes
Richard Sibbes
(or Sibbs) (1577–1635) was an Anglican
Anglican
theologian. He is known as a Biblical exegete, and as a representative, with William Perkins and John Preston, of what has been called "main-line" Puritanism[1] because he ever remained in the Church of England
Church of England
and worshiped according to the Book of Common Prayer.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Views 4 Influence 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Tostock, Suffolk, where his father was a wheelwright;[2] other sources say Sudbury
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Nicholas Ridley (martyr)
Nicholas Ridley (c. 1500–16 October 1555) was an English Bishop of London (the only bishop called " Bishop of London
Bishop of London
and Westminster"[1]). Ridley was burned at the stake as one of the Oxford Martyrs
Oxford Martyrs
during the Marian Persecutions
Marian Persecutions
for his teachings and his support of Lady Jane Grey. He is remembered with a commemoration in the calendar of saints in some parts of the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
on 16 October.Contents1 Early years and advancement (c.1500–50) 2 Vestments controversy
Vestments controversy
(1550–3)2.1 Hooper–Ridley debate 2.2 Outcome of the controversy3 Downfall (1553–5) 4 Death and legacy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly years and advancement (c.1500–50)[edit] Ridley came from a prominent family in Tynedale, Northumberland
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Alford, Lincolnshire
Alford (pronounced "Olford") is a town in Lincolnshire, England, about 11 miles (18 km) north-west of the coastal resort of Skegness. It lies at the foot of the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Wolds, which is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The population of the town was recorded as 3,459 in the 2011 Census.[1]Contents1 Governance 2 Amenities 3 Economy and transport 4 Population 5 Landmarks5.1 Windmill 5.2 Alford Manor House 5.3 Churches6 Education 7 Notable people 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksGovernance[edit] An electoral ward of the same name exists. It stretches east to the coast, with a population of 4,531, as recorded in the 2011 census.[2] Amenities[edit] Alford's retail outlets cater mainly for local demand. Shops include a pharmacy, a grocery, two butchers (the latest one opened in November 2016) and DIY
DIY
and homeware stores
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Conventicle
A conventicle is a small, unofficial and unofficiated religious meeting of laypeople.Contents1 England 2 Scotland 3 Finland 4 Germany 5 Japan 6 More recent applications in the United States 7 Conventicles in other religions 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEngland[edit] In England, there were three acts of Parliament passed to coerce people to attend Church of England
Church of England
services and to prohibit unofficiated meeting of laymen: The Religion Act 1592, stated to last for just one parliament, called for imprisonment without bail of those over the age of sixteen who failed to attend
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Unconditional Election
Unconditional election
Unconditional election
(also known as unconditional grace) is a Reformed doctrine relating to Predestination
Predestination
that describes the actions and motives of God in eternity past, before He created the world, where he predestinated some people to receive salvation, the elect, and the rest he left to continue in their sins and receive the just punishment, eternal damnation, for their transgressions of God's law as outlined in the old and new Testaments of the Bible
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Christian Mortalism
Christian mortalism
Christian mortalism
incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal;[1][2][3][4][5] and may include the belief that the soul is uncomprehending during the time between bodily death and resurrection,[6][7][8][9][10] known as the intermediate state. "Soul sleep" is an often pejorative term[11][a][14] so the more neutral term "materialism" was also used in the nineteenth century,[15] and "Christian mortalism" since the 1970s.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Historically the term psychopannychism was also used, despite problems with the etymology[b][c] and application.[24] The term thnetopsychism has also been used, for example Gordon Campbell (2008) identified Milton as believing in the latter[25] though in fact both De doctrina Christiana[d] and Paradise Lost[e] refers to death as "sleep" and the dead as being "raised from sleep"
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Sola Scriptura
Sola scriptura
Sola scriptura
(Latin: by Scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian Scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice. The Scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of secondary authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of the Church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the Christian Church, and so on. However, sola scriptura rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all secondary authority is derived from the authority of the Scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible
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Calvinism
Calvinism
Calvinism
(also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things.[1][2] As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election
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Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Hugh Latimer
Hugh Latimer
Hugh Latimer
(c. 1487 – 16 October 1555) was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester
Bishop of Worcester
before the Reformation, and later Church of England
Church of England
chaplain to King Edward VI. In 1555 under the Catholic
Catholic
Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford
Oxford
Martyrs of Anglicanism.Contents1 Life 2 Trial 3 Death 4 Veneration 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksLife[edit] Latimer was born into a family of farmers in Thurcaston, Leicestershire. His birthdate is unknown. Contemporary biographers including John Foxe
John Foxe
placed the date somewhere between 1480 and 1494. He started his studies in Latin grammar at the age of four, but not much else is known of his childhood
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John Owen (theologian)
John Owen (1616 – 24 August 1683) was an English Nonconformist church leader, theologian, and academic administrator at the University of Oxford. He was briefly a member of parliament for the University, sitting in the First Protectorate Parliament
First Protectorate Parliament
of 1654 to 1655.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Political life 4 Later life 5 Theological influence 6 Works in print 7 Secondary works 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Of Welsh descent, Owen was born at Stadhampton
Stadhampton
in Oxfordshire, and was educated at Queen's College, Oxford (B.A. 1632, M.A. 1635); at the time the college was noted, according to Thomas Fuller, for its metaphysicians. A Puritan
Puritan
by upbringing, in 1637 Owen was driven from Oxford by Laud's new statutes, and became chaplain and tutor in the family of Sir Robert Dormer and then in that of Lord Lovelace
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St Botolph's Church, Boston
St Botolph's Church is a parish church in the Church of England
Church of England
in Boston, Lincolnshire. It is notable for its extraordinarily tall tower, known as the " Boston
Boston
Stump".Contents1 Background 2 Earlier buildings 3 Foundation and architecture3.1 Misericords4 Dimensions and statistics 5 Significance of the tower5.1 Architectural influence abroad6 Name 7 Library 8 Political climate and its effects 9 Restoration of the Stump 10 Events 11 Environment 12 Present day 13 Organ13.1 List of organists14 Bibliography 15 Notes 16 References 17 External linksBackground[edit] The church is one of the largest parish churches in England, and has one of the tallest Medieval towers in the country. The tower is approximately 272 feet (83 m) high.[1] [note 1] It can be seen for miles around; its prominence accentuated by the flat surrounding countryside known as The Fens
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Quakers
Quakers
Quakers
(or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.[2] Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God
God
in every person". Some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter.[3][4][5][6] They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are also Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of a Christian God
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Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College (referred to informally as "Sidney") is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
in England. The college was founded in 1596 under the terms of the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex (1531–1589) and named after its foundress. It was from its inception an avowedly Protestant foundation;[1] "some good and godlie moniment for the mainteynance of good learninge"
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