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Antineutron
The antineutron is the antiparticle of the neutron with symbol n. It differs from the neutron only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. It has the same mass as the neutron, and no net electric charge, but has opposite baryon number (+1 for neutron, −1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks. Since the antineutron is electrically neutral, it cannot easily be observed directly. Instead, the products of its annihilation with ordinary matter are observed. In theory, a free antineutron should decay into an antiproton, a positron and a neutrino in a process analogous to the beta decay of free neutrons
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Particle Accelerator
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.[1] Large accelerators are used in particle physics as colliders (e.g., the LHC
LHC
at CERN, KEKB at KEK
KEK
in Japan, RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Tevatron
Tevatron
at Fermilab), or as synchrotron light sources for the study of condensed matter physics. Smaller particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes, radioisotope production for medical diagnostics, ion implanters for manufacture of semiconductors, and accelerator mass spectrometers for measurements of rare isotopes such as radiocarbon
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Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов; 21 May 1921 – 14 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.[1] He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's RDS-37, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Sakharov later became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; these efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1975
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Paul Dirac
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac OM FRS[7] (/dɪˈræk/; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century. Dirac made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation
Dirac equation
which describes the behaviour of fermions and predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
with Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".[8] He also made significant contributions to the reconciliation of general relativity with quantum mechanics. Dirac was regarded by his friends and colleagues as unusual in character
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Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
The Relativistic Heavy Ion
Ion
Collider (RHIC /ˈrɪk/) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built
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CERN
Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaireMember statesFormation September 29, 1954; 63 years ago (1954-09-29)[1]Headquarters Meyrin, Canton of Geneva, SwitzerlandMembership22 countries Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Israel  Italy  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  United Kingdom Associate members:  Cyprus  India  Lithuania  Pakistan  Serbia  Slovenia  Turkey  UkraineOfficial languagesEnglish and FrenchCouncil PresidentSijbrand de Jong[2]Director GeneralFabiola Gianotti<
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ATRAP
The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva.[1] It was built as a successor to the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and started operation in the year 2000. Antiprotons are created by impinging a proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron on a metal target. The AD decelerates the resultant antiprotons to an energy of 5.3 MeV, which are then ejected to one of several connected experiments.Contents1 ELENA 2 AD experiments 3 ATHENA3.1 ATHENA physics 3.2 ATHENA collaboration4 ATRAP4.1 Positron production and accumulation 4.2 ATRAP collaboration5 ASACUSA 6 ACE 7 ALPHA7.1 ALPHA physics 7.2 ALPHA collaboration8 AEgIS8.1 AEgIS physics 8.2 AEgIS collaboration9 GBAR9.1 GBAR collaboration10 BASE10.1 BASE collaboration11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksELENA[edit] "ELENA" redirects here
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Athena
Athena[Notes 2] or Athene,[Notes 3] often given the epithet Pallas,[Notes 4] is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare,[1] who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.[2] Athena
Athena
was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.[3] She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion. From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess, Athena
Athena
was closely associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos (both derived from polis, meaning "city-state"), and her temples were usually located atop the fortified Acropolis
Acropolis
in the central part of the city
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ALPHA Collaboration
The Antiproton
Antiproton
Decelerator (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva.[1] It was built as a successor to the Low Energy Antiproton
Antiproton
Ring (LEAR) and started operation in the year 2000. Antiprotons
Antiprotons
are created by impinging a proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron on a metal target
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Positron Emission Tomography
Positron-emission tomography (PET)[1] is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET-CT scanners, three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray
X-ray
scan performed on the patient during the same session, in the same machine. If the biologically active molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations of tracer imaged will indicate tissue metabolic activity as it corresponds to the regional glucose uptake
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Beta Decay
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron, or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission), thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons
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Additive Inverse
In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number a is the number that, when added to a, yields zero. This number is also known as the opposite (number),[1] sign change, and negation.[2] For a real number, it reverses its sign: the opposite to a positive number is negative, and the opposite to a negative number is positive. Zero is the additive inverse of itself. The additive inverse of a is denoted by unary minus: −a (see the discussion below). For example, the additive inverse of 7 is −7, because 7 + (−7) = 0, and the additive inverse of −0.3 is 0.3, because −0.3 + 0.3 = 0 . The additive inverse is defined as its inverse element under the binary operation of addition (see the discussion below), which allows a broad generalization to mathematical objects other than numbers
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Cloud Chamber
A Cloud Chamber, also known as a Wilson Cloud Chamber, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation.Fig. 1: Cloud chamber
Cloud chamber
photograph of the first positron ever observed by C. Anderson.A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol. An energetic charged particle (for example, an alpha or beta particle) interacts with the gaseous mixture by knocking electrons off gas molecules via electrostatic forces during collisions, resulting in a trail of ionized gas particles. The resulting ions act as condensation centers around which a mist-like trail of small droplets form if the gas mixture is at the point of condensation. These droplets are visible as a "cloud" track that persist for several seconds while the droplets fall through the vapor. These tracks have characteristic shapes
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Penning Trap
A Penning trap
Penning trap
is a device for the storage of charged particles using a homogeneous axial magnetic field and an inhomogeneous quadrupole electric field. This kind of trap is particularly well suited to precision measurements of properties of ions and stable subatomic particles. Geonium atoms have been created and studied this way, to measure the electron magnetic moment. Recently these traps have been used in the physical realization of quantum computation and quantum information processing by trapping qubits. Penning traps are used in many laboratories worldwide
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Baryon Number
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system. It is defined as B = 1 3 ( n q − n q ¯ ) , displaystyle B= frac 1 3 left(n_ text q -n_ bar text q right), where nq is the number of quarks, and nq is the number of antiquarks. Baryons (three quarks) have a baryon number of +1, mesons (one quark, one antiquark) have a baryon number of 0, and antibaryons (three antiquarks) have a baryon number of −1. Exotic hadrons like pentaquarks (four quarks, one antiquark) and tetraquarks (two quarks, two antiquarks) are also classified as baryons and mesons depending on their baryon number.Contents1 Baryon
Baryon
number vs
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