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Antineutron
The ANTINEUTRON is the antiparticle of the neutron with symbol n . It differs from the neutron only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign . It has the same mass as the neutron, and no net electric charge , but has opposite baryon number (+1 for neutron, −1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of antiquarks , while neutrons are composed of quarks . The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks . Since the antineutron is electrically neutral, it cannot easily be observed directly. Instead, the products of its annihilation with ordinary matter are observed. In theory, a free antineutron should decay into an antiproton , a positron and a neutrino in a process analogous to the beta decay of free neutrons . There are theoretical proposals of neutron–antineutron oscillations, a process that implies the violation of the baryon number conservation
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Positron Emission Tomography
POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron -emitting radionuclide (tracer ), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET-CT scanners, three-dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray
X-ray
scan performed on the patient during the same session, in the same machine. If the biologically active molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose , the concentrations of tracer imaged will indicate tissue metabolic activity as it corresponds to the regional glucose uptake
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ALPHA Collaboration
The ANTIPROTON DECELERATOR (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva
Geneva
. It was built as a successor to the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and started operation in the year 2000. Antiprotons are created by impinging a proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron on a metal target. The AD decelerates the resultant antiprotons to an energy of 5.3 MeV, which are then ejected to one of several connected experiments
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Athena
ATHENA (/əˈθiːnə/ ; Attic Greek : Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic : Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric : Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or ATHENE (/əˈθiːniː/ ; Ionic : Ἀθήνη, Athēnē), often given the epithet PALLAS (/ˈpæləs/ ; Παλλὰς), is the goddess of wisdom, craft, and war in ancient Greek religion and mythology . In later times, Athena
Athena
was syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva
Minerva
. Athena
Athena
was portrayed as having a calm temperament, and moving slowly to anger. She was believed to only fight for just causes and never fight without a purpose
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Cloud Chamber
A CLOUD CHAMBER, also known as a WILSON CLOUD CHAMBER, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation . A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol . An energetic charged particle (for example, an alpha or beta particle ) interacts with the gaseous mixture by knocking electrons off gas molecules via electrostatic forces during collisions, resulting in a trail of ionized gas particles. The resulting ions act as condensation centers around which a mist-like trail of small droplets form if the gas mixture is at the point of condensation. These droplets are visible as a "cloud" track that persist for several seconds while the droplets fall through the vapor. These tracks have characteristic shapes. For example, an alpha particle track is thick and straight, while an electron track is wispy and shows more evidence of deflections by collisions. Fig
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Penning Trap
A PENNING TRAP is a device for the storage of charged particles using a homogeneous axial magnetic field and an inhomogeneous quadrupole electric field . This kind of trap is particularly well suited to precision measurements of properties of ions and stable subatomic particles . Geonium atoms have been created and studied this way, to measure the electron magnetic moment. Recently these traps have been used in the physical realization of quantum computation and quantum information processing by trapping qubits . Penning traps are used in many laboratories worldwide. For example, at CERN
CERN
to store antimatter like antiprotons
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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY (LBNL or LBL), commonly referred to as BERKELEY LAB, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley , California
California
that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by the University of California
California
. The laboratory overlooks the University of California, Berkeley 's main campus. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Lab Directors * 3 Science mission * 4 Operations and governance * 5 Scientific achievements, inventions, and discoveries * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe laboratory was founded in August 26, 1931 by Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
as the RADIATION LABORATORY of the University of California, Berkeley associated with the Physics Department
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Beta Decay
In nuclear physics , BETA DECAY (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron ), and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus . For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron, or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission ), thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons . The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its binding energy . The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear valley of stability . Beta decay
Beta decay
is a consequence of the weak force , which is characterized by relatively lengthy decay times
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ATRAP
The ANTIPROTON DECELERATOR (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva
Geneva
. It was built as a successor to the Low Energy Antiproton
Antiproton
Ring (LEAR) and started operation in the year 2000. Antiprotons are created by impinging a proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron on a metal target. The AD decelerates the resultant antiprotons to an energy of 5.3 MeV, which are then ejected to one of several connected experiments
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Cern
Coordinates : 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278 European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire Member states FORMATION September 29, 1954; 63 years ago (1954-09-29) HEADQUARTERS Meyrin , Canton of Geneva , Switzerland
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Additive Inverse
In mathematics, the ADDITIVE INVERSE of a number a is the number that, when added to a, yields zero . This number is also known as the OPPOSITE (number), SIGN CHANGE, and NEGATION. For a real number , it reverses its sign : the opposite to a positive number is negative, and the opposite to a negative number is positive. Zero is the additive inverse of itself. The additive inverse of a is denoted by unary minus : −a (see the discussion below ). For example, the additive inverse of 7 is −7, because 7 + (−7) = 0, and the additive inverse of −0.3 is 0.3, because −0.3 + 0.3 = 0 . The additive inverse is defined as its inverse element under the binary operation of addition (see the discussion below ), which allows a broad generalization to mathematical objects other than numbers. As for any inverse operation, double additive inverse has no net effect : −(−x) = x
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Mass
MASS is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion ) when a net force is applied. It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics , mass is not the same as weight , even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale , rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics , mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Baryon Number
In particle physics , the BARYON NUMBER is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system. It is defined as B = 1 3 ( n q n q ) , {displaystyle B={frac {1}{3}}left(n_{text{q}}-n_{bar {text{q}}}right),} where nq is the number of quarks , and nq is the number of antiquarks . Baryons (three quarks) have a baryon number of +1, mesons (one quark, one antiquark) have a baryon number of 0, and antibaryons (three antiquarks) have a baryon number of −1. Exotic hadrons like pentaquarks (four quarks, one antiquark) and tetraquarks (two quarks, two antiquarks) are also classified as baryons and mesons depending on their baryon number. CONTENTS * 1 Baryon
Baryon
number vs. quark number * 2 Particles not formed of quarks * 3 Conservation * 4 See also * 5 References BARYON NUMBER VS
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Andrei Sakharov
ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV (Russian : Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов; 21 May 1921 – 14 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist , Soviet dissident , an activist for disarmament, peace and human rights. He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
's RDS-37 , a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons . Sakharov later became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; these efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1975. The Sakharov Prize
Sakharov Prize
, which is awarded annually by the European Parliament
European Parliament
for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, is named in his honor
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Carl David Anderson
CARL DAVID ANDERSON (September 3, 1905 – January 11, 1991) was an American physicist . He is best known for his discovery of the positron in 1932, an achievement for which he received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
, and of the muon in 1936. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Select publications * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYAnderson was born in New York City
New York City
, the son of Swedish immigrants. He studied physics and engineering at Caltech
Caltech
( B.S.
B.S.
, 1927; Ph.D. , 1930). Under the supervision of Robert A
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Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
The RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC /ˈrɪk/ ) is one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders , and the only spin -polarized proton collider ever built. Located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York , and used by an international team of researchers, it is the only operating particle collider in the US. By using RHIC to collide ions traveling at relativistic speeds, physicists study the primordial form of matter that existed in the universe shortly after the Big Bang
Big Bang
. By colliding spin-polarized protons, the spin structure of the proton is explored. RHIC is now the second-highest-energy heavy-ion collider in the world. As of November 7, 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has collided heavy ions of lead at higher energies than RHIC. The LHC operating time for ions (lead-lead and lead-proton collisions) is limited to about one month per year
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