HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Anti-clericalism
Anti-clericalism
Anti-clericalism
is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters. Historical anti-clericalism has mainly been opposed to the influence of Roman Catholicism. Anti-clericalism is related to secularism, which seeks to remove the church from all aspects of public and political life, and its involvement in the everyday life of the citizen.[1] Some have opposed clergy on the basis of moral corruption, institutional issues and/or disagreements in religious interpretation, such as during the Protestant Reformation. Anti-clericalism
Anti-clericalism
became extremely violent during the French Revolution
French Revolution
because revolutionaries believed the church had played a pivotal role in the systems of oppression which led to it
[...More...]

picture info

Grande Chartreuse
Grande Chartreuse
Grande Chartreuse
(French: [ɡʁɑ̃d ʃaʁtʁøːz]) is the head monastery of the Carthusian
Carthusian
religious order. It is located in the Chartreuse Mountains, north of the city of Grenoble, in the commune of Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse
Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse
(Isère), France. Originally, the château belonged to the See of Grenoble. In 1084, Saint Hugh gave it to hermit Saint Bruno and his followers who founded the Carthusian
Carthusian
Order.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] Today, visitors are not permitted at Grand Chartreuse, and motor vehicles are prohibited on the surrounding roads
[...More...]

picture info

Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
[...More...]

picture info

Lutheran
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
[...More...]

picture info

Calvinist
Calvinism
Calvinism
(also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things.[1][2] As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election
[...More...]

picture info

Mass (liturgy)
Mass is the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Roman Catholic[1] and Anglican churches,[2] as well as in some Lutheran,[3] Methodist,[4][5] Western Rite Orthodox, and Old Catholic churches. Other Christian denominations may employ terms such as Divine Service or worship service (and often just "service"), rather than the word Mass.[6] For the celebration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
in Eastern Christianity, including Eastern Catholic Churches, other terms such as Divine Liturgy, Holy Qurbana, and Badarak are typically used instead.Contents1 Etymology 2 Catholic Church2.1 Introductory rites 2.2 Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Word 2.3 Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Eucharist 2.4 Communion rite 2.5 Concluding rite3 Western Rite Orthodox Churches3.1 Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of St
[...More...]

picture info

Public Education
State schools (also known as public schools outside England
England
and Wales[note 1]) are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. These schools are generally inclusive (non-selective) in admitting all students within the geographical area that they serve. While state schools are to be found in virtually every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education (kindergarten to twelfth grade, or equivalent), as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities, colleges, and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than private entities. The education system, or lack thereof, prior to the establishment of government-funded schools impacts their role in each society
[...More...]

16 May 1877 Crisis
The 16 May 1877 crisis (French: Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic
French Third Republic
concerning the distribution of power between the President and the legislature. When the Royalist President Patrice MacMahon dismissed the Opportunist Republican Prime Minister Jules Simon, the parliament on 16 May 1877 refused to support the new government and was dissolved by the President. New elections resulted in the Royalists increasing their seat totals, but nonetheless resulted in a majority for the Republicans. Thus, the interpretation of the 1875 Constitution as a parliamentary system prevailed over a presidential system
[...More...]

picture info

Legitimists
The Legitimists
Legitimists
(French: Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution.[1] They reject the claim of the July Monarchy
Monarchy
of 1830–1848 which placed Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, head of the Orléans cadet branch of the Bourbon dynasty on the throne until he, too, was dethroned and driven, with his family, into exile. Following the movement of Ultra-royalists
Ultra-royalists
during the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, legitimists came to form one of the three main right-wing factions in France, which was principally characterized by its counter-revolutionary views
[...More...]

picture info

Ancien Régime
The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
(/ˌɒ̃sjæ̃ reɪˈʒiːm/; French: [ɑ̃.sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim]; French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility
French nobility
were abolished by the French Revolution.[1] The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe
[...More...]

picture info

Benedictine
The Order of Saint Benedict
Order of Saint Benedict
(OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known – in reference to the colour of its members' habits – as the Black Monks, is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict. Each community (monastery, priory or abbey) within the order maintains its own autonomy, while the order itself represents their mutual interests
[...More...]

picture info

First Coalition
French victory; Peace of Basel, Treaty of Campo FormioEstablishment and survival of the French First Republic French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
and other smaller territories Several French "sister republics" established Hostilities resume in 1798 with the formation of a Second Coalition against FranceBelligerentsFirst Coalition:  Holy Roman Empire[1] Habsburg Monarchy  Prussia (until 1795)[2] Great Britain Army of Condé
[...More...]

picture info

Émile Combes
Émile Justin Louis Combes (French: [emil kɔ̃b]; 6 September 1835 – 25 May 1921) was a French statesman
French statesman
and freemason[1][2][3] who led the Bloc des gauches's cabinet from June 1902 – January 1905.Contents1 Career 2 Prime minister 3 Later life 4 Combes's Ministry, 7 June 1902 – 24 January 1905 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 External linksCareer[edit] Émile Combes
Émile Combes
was born in Roquecourbe, Tarn. He studied for the priesthood, but abandoned the idea before ordination. His anti-clericalism would later lead him into becoming a Freemason.[4][5] He was also in later life a spiritualist.[6] He later took a diploma as a doctor of letters (1860). Then he studied medicine, taking his degree in 1867, and setting up in practice at Pons in Charente-Inférieure. In 1881 he presented himself as a political candidate for Saintes, but was defeated
[...More...]

picture info

Alsace-Lorraine
The Imperial Territory of Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
(German: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen; Alsatian: 's Rìchslànd Elsass-Lothrìnge; Moselle
Moselle
Franconian/Luxembourgish: D'Räichland Elsass-Loutrengen) was a territory created by the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace
Alsace
and the Moselle
Moselle
department of Lorraine
Lorraine
following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine
Rhine
Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains
[...More...]

picture info

German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
Prussia
from the House of Hohenzollern.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital, and Otto, Prince of Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government
[...More...]

.