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Anthropodermic Bibliopegy
ANTHROPODERMIC BIBLIOPEGY is the practice of binding books in human skin . As of April 2016, The Anthropodermic Book Project "has identified 47 alleged anthropodermic books in the world's libraries and museums. Of those, 30 books have been tested or are in the process of being tested. Seventeen of the books have been confirmed as having human skin bindings and nine were proven to be not of human origin but of sheep, pig, cow, or other animals." (The confirmed figures as of May 2017 have increased to 18 bindings identified as human and 13 disproved. ) CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Examples * 4 Identification * 5 Ethical and legal issues * 6 Popular culture * 7 Notes * 8 Further reading TERMINOLOGY_Bibliopegy_ (/bɪblɪˈɒpɪdʒi/ _bib-li-OP-i-jee_ ) is a rare synonym for bookbinding . It combines the Ancient Greekβιβλίον (_biblion_ = book) and πηγία (_pegia_, from _pegnynai_ = to fasten). The earliest reference in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from 1876; Merriam-Webstergives the date of first use as _circa_ 1859 and the OED records an instance of _bibliopegist_ for a bookbinder from 1824. The word _anthropodermic_, combining the Ancient Greek ἄνθρωπος (_anthropos_ = man or human) and δέρμα (_derma_ = skin), does not appear in the Oxford English Dictionaryand appears never to be used in contexts other than bookbinding. The practice of binding a book in the skin of its
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Burke And Hare Murders
The BURKE AND HARE MURDERS were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh , Scotland. The killings were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Doctor Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures. Edinburgh was a leading European centre of anatomical study in the early 19th century, in a time when the demand for cadavers led to a shortfall in legal supply. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings and orphans. The shortage of corpses led to an increase in grave robbing by what were known as resurrection men . Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage. When a lodger in Hare's house died, he turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox. They received what was, for them, the generous sum of £7 10s. A little over two months later, when Hare was concerned that a lodger suffering from fever would deter others from staying in the house, he and Burke murdered her and sold the body to Knox. The men continued their murder spree, probably with the knowledge of their wives. Burke and Hare's actions were uncovered after other lodgers discovered their last victim, Margaret Docherty, and called the police. A forensic examination of Docherty's body indicated she had probably been suffocated, but it could not be proven. Although the po
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Bookbinding
BOOKBINDING is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Book
Book
artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly expand the previous explanation to include book like objects of visual art with high value and artistic merit of exceptional quality in addition to the book's content of text and illustrations. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was STATIONERY binding (known as vellum binding in the trade) which deals with making new books to be written into and intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, and guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books , manifold books, day books, diaries, portfolios, etc. Second was LETTERPRESS binding which deals with making new books intended to be read from and includes library binding , fine binding, edition binding, and publisher's bindings. A result of the new bindings is a t
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Human Skin
The HUMAN SKIN is the outer covering of the body. In humans , it is the largest organ of the integumentary system . The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals . Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles , it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless). The adjective CUTANEOUS literally means "of the skin" (from Latin _cutis_, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss . Its other functions are insulation , temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D , and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue . This is often discolored and depigmented. In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily . Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria that number roughly 1000 species from 19 phyla , present on the human skin. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Epidermis * 1.1.1 Components * 1.1.2 Layers * 1.1.3 Sublayers * 1.2 Dermis * 1.2.1 Papillary region * 1.2.2 Reticular region * 1.3 Hypodermis * 1.4 Cross-section * 2 Development * 2.1 Skin color * 2.2 Aging * 2.2.1 Photoaging * 3 Functions
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greeceand the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greekand in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greekwas the language of Homerand of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western worldsince the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language. CONTENTS* 1 Dialects * 1.1 History * 1.2 Related languages * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Differences from Proto-Indo-European * 2.2 Phonemic inventory * 2.2.1 Consonants * 2.2.2 Vowels * 3 Morphology * 3.1 Augment * 3.2 Reduplication * 4 Writin
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Oxford English Dictionary
The _OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY_ (_OED_) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of _A New English Dictionaryon Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society_. In 1895, the title _The OxfordEnglish Dictionary_ (_OED_) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title _The OxfordEnglish Dictionary_ fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two mil
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Merriam-Webster
MERRIAM-WEBSTER, INCORPORATED, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries . In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. Author and poet Nathan W. Austin explores the intersection of lexicographical and poetic practices in American literature, and attempts to map out a "lexical poetics" using Webster's dictionaries as a base. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Webster's ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language. Austin explicates key definitions from the _Compendious_ (1806) and _American_ (1828) dictionaries, and expresses various concerns, including the politics of American English, the question of national identity and culture in the early moments of American independence, and the poetics of citation and definition. MERRIAM AS PUBLISHER Further information: Webster\'s Dictionary In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriamand Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but merely added new sections, and a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a greatly expanded edition, which was the first version to change Webster's text, lar
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Wellcome Library
Coordinates : 51°31′33″N 0°08′06″W / 51.5257°N 0.1349°W / 51.5257; -0.1349 The WELLCOME LIBRARY is founded on the collection formed by Sir Henry Wellcome (1853–1936), whose personal wealth allowed him to create one of the most ambitious collections of the 20th century. Henry Wellcome's interest was the history of medicine in a broad sense and included subjects such as alchemy or witchcraft , but also anthropology and ethnography . Since Henry Wellcome’s death in 1936, the Wellcome Trust has been responsible for maintaining the Library's collection and funding its acquisitions. The library is free and open to the public. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Collections * 2.1 History of medicine collection * 2.2 Medical Collection * 2.3 Asian collections * 2.4 Archives and manuscripts * 2.5 Rare book collection * 2.6 Paintings, prints and drawings collection * 2.7 Moving image and sound collections * 2.8 Wellcome images * 3 Wikimedian in Residence * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYHenry Wellcome began collecting books seriously in the late 1890s, using a succession of agents and dealers, and by travelling around the world to gather whatever could be found. Wellcome's first major entry into the market took place at the auction of William Morris 's library in 1898, where he was the biggest single purchaser, taking away about a third of the lots. His interests were truly international and the broad covera
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Zacharias Conrad Von Uffenbach
ZACHARIAS CONRAD VON UFFENBACH (22 February 1683 – 6 January 1734) was a German scholar, bibliophile, book-collector, traveller, palaeographer , and consul in Frankfurt am Main who is best known today for his published travelogues. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born in lawyer's family. His younger brother Johann Friedrich von Uffenbach accompanied him on his travels. Uffenbach described 18th-century curiosity cabinets and scientific collections that later became the basis for museums, such as the private collection of Hans Sloane , that later was absorbed into what today is the British Museum . In 1710 he visited Oxford to examine manuscripts in University libraries. His _Merkwürdige Reisen durch Niedersachsen, Holland und Engelland_ was published in 1753 and related his travels during the years 1709-1711 through the towns Hassel (Bergen) , Goslar , Clausthal-Zellerfeld , Blankenburg , Quedlinburg , Halberstadt , Magdeburg , Helmstadt , Braunschweig , Wolfenbuttel , Salzdahlum , Hildesheim , Hannover , Herrenhausen , Zelle, Luneburg , Rakeburg, Lübeck , Hamburg , Stade , Bremen , Emden , Groningen , Leeuwarden , Franeker , Harlingen , Bolsward , Zwolle , Deventer , Harderwijk , Amersfoort , Utrecht , Amsterdam , Leiden , Rotterdam , Delft , The Hague , Haarlem , London , Greenwich , Oxford , Hampton Court , Kensington , Woodstock, Oxfordshire , Richmond, London ,
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Bremen
The City Municipality of BREMEN (German : _Stadtgemeinde Bremen_, IPA: ( listen )) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen(also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany. As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremenis part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.4 million people. Bremenis the second most populous city in Northern Germanyand eleventh in Germany. Bremenis a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremenis home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Übersee-Museum Bremen. Bremenhas a reputation as a working-class city. Bremenis home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachezchocolate company and Vector Foiltec. Four-time German football champions Werder Bremenare also based in the city. Bremenis some 60 km (37 mi) south of the mouth of the Weseron the North Sea. Bremenand Bremerhaven(at the mouth of the Weser) together comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official German name:
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Martin Moller
MARTIN MOLLER (10 November 1547, Ließnitz – 2 March 1606, Görlitz ) was a German poet and mystic . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEMoller was born in Ließnitz (now Kropstädt bei Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt ) in 1547 and became cantor in Löwenberg in Lower Silesia in 1568. He was ordained in 1572, despite never having been to university, and served as priest and deacon in Kesseldorf, Löwenberg and Sprottau . He came to Görlitz in 1600, where Jakob Böhme was in his congregation. Böhme was a keen attendant at the devotional meetings Moller held at his house; only after Moller's death in 1606 did Böhme start coming into conflict with the Görlitz priesthood. WORKSMoller's works characterise him as a conciliatory theologian rather than one who, like Böhme, looked to provoke conflict. Practical Christianity , not dogma , was important to him. As such, he can be regarded as a forerunner of Johann Arndt . He was suspected of Crypto-Calvinist sympathies after publishing his _Praxis evangeliorum_ in 1601 and did little to refute these claims. Other well-known works of devotional literature written by Moller include _Meditationes Sanctorum Patrum_ (1584–1591), _Soliloquia de passione Jesu Christi_ (1587) and _Mysterium magnum_ (1597). All of these works show clearly how Moller was influenced by another German theologian with links to mysticism, Valerius Herberger . He also wrote several hymns , four of which survive
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Charles E. Young Research Library
The CHARLES E. YOUNG RESEARCH LIBRARY is one of the largest libraries on the campus of UCLA in Westwood , Los Angeles , California . It was built in 1964. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 2012 renovation * 4 Technology * 5 Sustainability * 6 Increased traffic * 7 Renovation project team * 8 See also * 9 References OVERVIEWThe Charles E. Young Research Library, seated at the northern edge of a bustling UCLA campus, is considered by many to be a classic piece of Mid-Century Modern architecture, and a prime example of the innovative work done by A. Quincy Jones —himself a master of modernism and the dean of USC ’s School of Architecture from 1951 to 1967. The library has been serving graduate students and faculty in the humanities and social sciences since first opening in 1964, and it can be said that the building’s concrete skeleton, dark glass windows and deep floorplate reflect the weight and significance of the research happening inside. HISTORYThe library is named after the university's former chancellor of 29 years, Charles E. Young . The building was designed by architects A. Quincy Jones and Frederick Earl Emmons in 1964. The upper floors of this library is meant mainly for faculty and graduate students who wish to conduct research (and the collections inside the library reflect its research orientation). The library holds resources in the humanities , social sciences , education, public affairs, government information, jou
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UCLA
The UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles , California , United States. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the second-oldest undergraduate campus of the ten-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students, and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, the most applicants for any American university. The university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, and four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Letters and Science ; Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science (HSSEAS) ; School of the Arts and Architecture ; Herb Alpert School of Music ; School of Theater, Film and Television ; and School of Nursing . Fourteen Nobel laureates , three Fields Medalists , two Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force and three Turing Award winners have been faculty, researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences , 28 to the National Academy of Engineering , 39 to the Institute of Medicine , and 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974.
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James Westfall Thompson
JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON (1869–1941) was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France . He also made noteworthy contributions to the history of literacy , libraries and the book trade in the Middle Ages . Born to a Dutch reform minister's family in Pella, Iowa, Thompson received an undergraduate degree from Rutgers University in 1892 and a PhD in history from the newly founded University of Chicago in 1895. Thompson remained at Chicago as a professor of history until 1933, when he left for the University of California, Berkeley . He remained at Berkeley until his death in 1941. Thompson was one of the most prolific academics of his generation and wrote on a wide range of subjects, from the French Revolution to the economic structures of the Carolingian Empire to the history of espionage in early modern Europe. Some of his most important scholarly contributions came from his research on literacy and book collecting . His 1939 book _The Literacy of the Laity in the Middle Ages_ remains a classic study of the subject. Thompson's two-volume study of the social and economic history of medieval Germany , _Feudal Germany_, appropriated elements of Frederick Jackson Turner\'s famous Frontier Thesis and applied them to the colonization of Slavic central Europe by German settlers in the Middle Ages. Thompson served as president of the American Historical Association in 1941, but died bef
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Armand-Jérôme Bignon
ARMAND-JéRôME BIGNON (21 October 1711, Paris – 8 March 1772, Paris ) was a French lawyer, royal librarian and conseiller d\'État . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYThe lord of Île Belle and Hardricourt , he was made avocat général to the Grand Conseil in 1729, maître des requêtes for Soissons in 1737 and president of the Grand Conseil in 1738. In 1743, on his brother's death he was made royal librarian (a post Armand-Jérôme had inherited in turn from their uncle Jean-Paul Bignon ). Armand-Jérôme resigned from it in 1770 in favour of his son Jérôme-Frédéric . He was elected to the Académie française in 1743 and to the Académie des Inscriptions in 1751. He was made conseiller d’État in 1762 and prévôt des marchands de Paris in 1764. The scholar Dupuy pronounced his elogy. It was his negligence in the latter post that caused the accidents in the firework display for the marriage of the Dauphin (later Louis XVI ) and Marie-Antoinette in May 1770 that left over 300 dead and a greater number of wounded. Even so, he appeared in his box at the Opéra only three days after the disaster, causing all Paris to become indignant. Under Louis XIII , the prévôt des marchands de Paris and the two premiers échevins were fined for not having repaired a bridge whose collapse killed 4 or 5 people. Under Louis XV , his faults born of a lack of foresight were never punished. Paris thus avenged itself by _b
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Louis Xv Of France
LOUIS XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as LOUIS THE BELOVED (_Louis le bien aimé_), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of Francefrom 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIVat the age of five. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France; the duke was his great-uncle, as well as first cousin twice removed patrilineally. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. During his reign, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, territory won at the Battle of Fontenoyof 1745, but given back to Austriaby the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748. Louis also ceded New Francein North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the Seven Years\' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of Lorraine and Corsicainto the kingdom of France. He was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVIin 1774. French culture and influence were at their height in the first half of the eighteenth century. However, many scholars believe that Louis XV's decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and made it more vulnerable to distrust and destruction. Evidence for this view is
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