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Anthropodermic Bibliopegy
ANTHROPODERMIC BIBLIOPEGY is the practice of binding books in human skin . As of April 2016, The Anthropodermic Book Project "has identified 47 alleged anthropodermic books in the world's libraries and museums. Of those, 30 books have been tested or are in the process of being tested. Seventeen of the books have been confirmed as having human skin bindings and nine were proven to be not of human origin but of sheep, pig, cow, or other animals." (The confirmed figures as of May 2017 have increased to 18 bindings identified as human and 13 disproved. ) CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Examples * 4 Identification * 5 Ethical and legal issues * 6 Popular culture * 7 Notes * 8 Further reading TERMINOLOGY_Bibliopegy_ (/bɪblɪˈɒpɪdʒi/ _bib-li-OP-i-jee_ ) is a rare synonym for bookbinding . It combines the Ancient Greek βιβλίον (_biblion_ = book) and πηγία (_pegia_, from _pegnynai_ = to fasten)
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Burke And Hare Murders
The BURKE AND HARE MURDERS were a series of 16 murders committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland. The killings were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Doctor Robert Knox
Robert Knox
for dissection at his anatomy lectures. Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was a leading European centre of anatomical study in the early 19th century, in a time when the demand for cadavers led to a shortfall in legal supply. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings and orphans. The shortage of corpses led to an increase in grave robbing by what were known as resurrection men . Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage. When a lodger in Hare's house died, he turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox
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Bookbinding
BOOKBINDING is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly expand the previous explanation to include book like objects of visual art with high value and artistic merit of exceptional quality in addition to the book's content of text and illustrations. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions
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Human Skin
The HUMAN SKIN is the outer covering of the body. In humans , it is the largest organ of the integumentary system . The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals . Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles , it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless). The adjective CUTANEOUS literally means "of the skin" (from Latin _cutis_, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss . Its other functions are insulation , temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D , and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue . This is often discolored and depigmented
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers
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Oxford English Dictionary
The _OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY_ (_OED_) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of _A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society_. In 1895, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ (_OED_) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes
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Merriam-Webster
MERRIAM-WEBSTER, INCORPORATED, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries . In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. Author and poet Nathan W. Austin explores the intersection of lexicographical and poetic practices in American literature, and attempts to map out a "lexical poetics" using Webster's dictionaries as a base. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Webster's ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language. Austin explicates key definitions from the _Compendious_ (1806) and _American_ (1828) dictionaries, and expresses various concerns, including the politics of American English , the question of national identity and culture in the early moments of American independence, and the poetics of citation and definition
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Wellcome Library
Coordinates : 51°31′33″N 0°08′06″W / 51.5257°N 0.1349°W / 51.5257; -0.1349 The WELLCOME LIBRARY is founded on the collection formed by Sir Henry Wellcome (1853–1936), whose personal wealth allowed him to create one of the most ambitious collections of the 20th century. Henry Wellcome's interest was the history of medicine in a broad sense and included subjects such as alchemy or witchcraft , but also anthropology and ethnography . Since Henry Wellcome’s death in 1936, the Wellcome Trust has been responsible for maintaining the Library's collection and funding its acquisitions. The library is free and open to the public
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Zacharias Conrad Von Uffenbach
ZACHARIAS CONRAD VON UFFENBACH (22 February 1683 – 6 January 1734) was a German scholar, bibliophile, book-collector, traveller, palaeographer , and consul in Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
who is best known today for his published travelogues. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born in lawyer's family. His younger brother Johann Friedrich von Uffenbach accompanied him on his travels. Uffenbach described 18th-century curiosity cabinets and scientific collections that later became the basis for museums, such as the private collection of Hans Sloane , that later was absorbed into what today is the British Museum
British Museum
. In 1710 he visited Cambridge
Cambridge
and Oxford to examine manuscripts in University libraries
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Bremen
The City Municipality of BREMEN (German : _Stadtgemeinde Bremen_, IPA: ( listen )) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany , which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany. As a commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser , Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region , with 2.4 million people. Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and eleventh in Germany. Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany . Bremen is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Übersee-Museum Bremen . Bremen has a reputation as a working-class city
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Martin Moller
MARTIN MOLLER (10 November 1547, Ließnitz – 2 March 1606, Görlitz ) was a German poet and mystic . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEMoller was born in Ließnitz (now Kropstädt bei Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt ) in 1547 and became cantor in Löwenberg in Lower Silesia in 1568. He was ordained in 1572, despite never having been to university, and served as priest and deacon in Kesseldorf, Löwenberg and Sprottau . He came to Görlitz
Görlitz
in 1600, where Jakob Böhme
Jakob Böhme
was in his congregation. Böhme was a keen attendant at the devotional meetings Moller held at his house; only after Moller's death in 1606 did Böhme start coming into conflict with the Görlitz
Görlitz
priesthood. WORKSMoller's works characterise him as a conciliatory theologian rather than one who, like Böhme, looked to provoke conflict
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Charles E. Young Research Library
The CHARLES E. YOUNG RESEARCH LIBRARY is one of the largest libraries on the campus of UCLA
UCLA
in Westwood , Los Angeles , California
California
. It was built in 1964. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 2012 renovation * 4 Technology * 5 Sustainability * 6 Increased traffic * 7 Renovation project team * 8 See also * 9 References OVERVIEWThe Charles E. Young
Charles E. Young
Research Library, seated at the northern edge of a bustling UCLA
UCLA
campus, is considered by many to be a classic piece of Mid-Century Modern
Mid-Century Modern
architecture, and a prime example of the innovative work done by A. Quincy Jones —himself a master of modernism and the dean of USC ’s School of Architecture from 1951 to 1967
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UCLA
The UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles , California , United States. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the second-oldest undergraduate campus of the ten-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students, and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, the most applicants for any American university
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James Westfall Thompson
JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON (1869–1941) was an American historian specializing in the history of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly of the Holy Roman Empire and France
France
. He also made noteworthy contributions to the history of literacy , libraries and the book trade in the Middle Ages . Born to a Dutch reform minister's family in Pella, Iowa, Thompson received an undergraduate degree from Rutgers University in 1892 and a PhD in history from the newly founded University of Chicago in 1895. Thompson remained at Chicago as a professor of history until 1933, when he left for the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
. He remained at Berkeley until his death in 1941
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Armand-Jérôme Bignon
ARMAND-JéRôME BIGNON (21 October 1711, Paris
Paris
– 8 March 1772, Paris
Paris
) was a French lawyer, royal librarian and conseiller d\'État . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYThe lord of Île Belle and Hardricourt , he was made avocat général to the Grand Conseil in 1729, maître des requêtes for Soissons in 1737 and president of the Grand Conseil in 1738. In 1743, on his brother's death he was made royal librarian (a post Armand-Jérôme had inherited in turn from their uncle Jean-Paul Bignon ). Armand-Jérôme resigned from it in 1770 in favour of his son Jérôme-Frédéric . He was elected to the Académie française
Académie française
in 1743 and to the Académie des Inscriptions in 1751. He was made conseiller d’État in 1762 and prévôt des marchands de Paris
Paris
in 1764
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