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Anogeissus Latifolia
Anogeissus
Anogeissus
latifolia is a species of small to medium-sized tree native to the India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Its common names are axlewood (English), bakli, dhau, dhawa, dhawra, or dhaora (Hindi), takhian-nu (Thai), and raam (Vietnamese). Fruit
Fruit
of Anogeissus
Anogeissus
latifoliaIt is one of the most useful trees in India. Its leaves contain large amounts of gallotannins,[1] and are used in India
India
for tanning. The tree is the source of Indian gum, also known as ghatti gum, which is used for calico printing among other uses. The leaves are also fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (Tussah), a form of wild silk of commercial importance.[2]Bark of Anogeissus
Anogeissus
latifoliaFootnotes[edit]^ Studies on dhava tannins. I
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Thai Language
Thai,[3] Central Thai,[4] or Siamese,[5] is the national and official language of Thailand
Thailand
and the first language of the Thai people
Thai people
and the vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Tai–Kadai language family. Over half of its words are borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon, and Old Khmer
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Vietnamese Language
Vietnamese /viˌɛtnəˈmiːz/ ( listen) (Tiếng Việt) is a Viet–Muong language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers (several times as many as the other Austroasiatic languages combined).[6] Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation
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Gallotannin
A gallotannin is any of a class of molecules belonging to the hydrolysable tannins. Gallotannins are polymers formed when gallic acid, a polyphenol monomer, esterifies and binds with the hydroxyl group of a polyol carbohydrate such as glucose. Metabolism[edit] Gallate 1-beta-glucosyltransferase uses UDP-glucose
UDP-glucose
and gallate to produce UDP and 1-galloyl-beta-D-glucose
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Calico (fabric)
Calico (in British usage since 1505[1]) is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example. The fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still very cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was originally from the city of Calicut in southwestern India. It was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans
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Tussah
Tussar silk (alternatively spelled as Tussah, Tushar, Tassar,[1] Tussore, Tasar, Tussur, Tusser and also known as (Sanskrit) Kosa silk) is produced from larvae of several species of silkworms belonging to the moth genus Antheraea, including A. assamensis, A. mylitta, A. paphia, A. pernyi, A. roylei and A. yamamai
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Tannin
A tannin (or tannoid) is an astringent, polyphenolic biomolecule that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids. The term tannin (from tanna, an Old High German
Old High German
word for oak or fir tree, as in Tannenbaum) refers to the use of wood tannins from oak in tanning animal hides into leather; hence the words "tan" and "tanning" for the treatment of leather
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Condensed Tannin
Condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, polyflavonoid tannins, catechol-type tannins, pyrocatecollic type tannins, non-hydrolyzable tannins or flavolans) are polymers formed by the condensation of flavans. They do not contain sugar residues.[1] They are called proanthocyanidins as they yield anthocyanidins when depolymerized under oxidative conditions. Different types of condensed tannins exist, such as the procyanidins, propelargonidins, prodelphinidins, profisetinidins, proteracacinidins, proguibourtinidins or prorobinetidins. All of the above are formed from flavan-3-ols, but flavan-3,4-diols, called (leucoanthocyanidin) also form condensed tannin oligomers, e.g
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Areca Catechu
Areca catechu is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. The palm is believed to have originated in the Philippines,[1] but is widespread in cultivation and is considered naturalized in southern China (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Ceylon, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, many of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, and also in the West Indies.[2][3][4] The species has many common names[1] including the areca palm, areca nut palm, betel palm, Indian nut, Pinang palm, Chinese language/Mandarin: "檳榔", Tamil: கமுகு, Tagalog: bunga, Indonesia/Malay: pinang,[5] Tamil:"கமுகு" "kamuhu" Malayalam:adakka, Kannada: Adike
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Arecatannin
Arecatannins are a class of condensed tannins in the sub-class procyanidins contained in the seeds of Areca catechu also called betel nut.[1] The arecatannin-type natural products from Ceylonese cassia bark and Areca seed are examples polyphenols by both current definitions, and fit the distinct definition of a polymeric phenol as well.[2] Known molecules[edit]Arecatannin A1 Arecatannin A2 (CAS number : 79763-29-4, formula : C60H50O24, MW : 1154.26920253) Arecatannin A3 Arecatannin B1 Arecatannin B2 Arecatannin C1[3]References[edit]^ Screening of various plant extracts used in ayurvedic medicine for inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. Ines Tomoco Kusumoto, Takeshi Nakabayashi1, Hiroaki Kida, Hirotsugu Miyashiro, Masao Hattori, Tsuneo Namba and Kunitada Shimotohno, Phytotherapy Research, Volume 9, Issue 3, May 1995, pp. 180–184, doi:10.1002/ptr.2650090305 ^ Isolation and structure elucidation of tannins. G
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Hydrolysable Tannin
A hydrolyzable tannin or pyrogallol-type tannin is a type of tannin that, on heating with hydrochloric or sulfuric acids, yields gallic or ellagic acids.[1] At the center of a hydrolyzable tannin molecule, there is a carbohydrate (usually D-glucose but also cyclitols like quinic or shikimic acids). The hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrate are partially or totally esterified with phenolic groups such as gallic acid in gallotannins or ellagic acid in ellagitannins
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Sumac
About 35 species; see textSumac (/ˈsjuːmæk/, /ˈʃuːmæk/ or /ˈsuːmæk/; also spelled sumach, sumaq) (Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: ܣܘܼܡܵܩܵܐ‎, translit. summāqāʾ, lit. 'red, red shift, turning red', Arabic: سُمّاق‎, translit. summāq) is any one of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. The dried and powdered fruits of Rhus coriaria are used as a spice in Middle Eastern and South Asian cuisine
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