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Annals
Annals
Annals
(Latin: annāles, from annus, "year")[1][2] are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year,[1] although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.[2]Contents1 Scope 2 History2.1 Ancient 2.2 Medieval 2.3 Modern3 See also 4 Notes 5 More Notes 6 References 7 External linksScope[edit] The nature of the distinction between annals and history is a subject that has received more attention from critics than its intrinsic importance deserves, based on divisions established by the ancient Romans.[1]
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Hiberno-Scottish Mission
The Hiberno-Scottish mission
Hiberno-Scottish mission
was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.[1] There was no overall coordinated mission, but there were nevertheless sporadic missions initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of modern-day Scotland, which contributed to the spread of Christianity
Christianity
and established monasteries in Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages. The earliest recorded Irish mission can be dated to 563 with the foundation of Iona
Iona
by the Irish monk Saint Columba
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Irish Monasticism
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.[1] "Celtic Christianity" has been conceived of with differing levels of specificity: some writers have described a distinct "Celtic Church" uniting the Celtic peoples and distinguishing them from the "Roman" Catholic Church, while others classify it as simply a set of distinctive practices occurring in those areas.[2] Some scholars now reject the former notion, but note that there were certain traditions and practices used in both the Irish and British churches but not in the wider Christian world.[3] These include a distinctive system for determining the dating of Easter, a style of monastic tonsure, a unique system of penance, and the popularity of going into "exile for Christ".[3] Additionally, there were other practices that developed in certain parts of Britain or Ireland, but which are
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Easter Tables
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter. Because the date is based on a calendar-dependent equinox rather than the astronomical one, there are differences between calculations done according to the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar. The name has been used for this procedure since the early Middle Ages, as it was considered the most important computation of the age. For most of their history Christians have calculated Easter independently of the Jewish calendar. In principle, Easter falls on the Sunday following the full moon that follows the northern spring equinox (the paschal full moon). However, the vernal equinox and the full moon are not determined by astronomical observation. The vernal equinox is fixed to fall on 21 March (previously it varied in different areas and in some areas Easter was allowed to fall before the equinox)
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Piso
The Piso family of ancient Rome was a prominent plebeian branch of the gens Calpurnia, descended from Calpus the son of Numa Pompilius.[1] with at least 50 prominent Roman family members recognized
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Livy
Titus Livius Patavinus (Classical Latin: [ˈtɪ.tʊs ˈliː.wi.ʊs]; 64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Livy
Livy
/ˈlɪvi/ in English language
English language
sources – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome
Rome
and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome
Rome
before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus
Augustus
in Livy's own lifetime
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Austrasia
Austrasia
Austrasia
was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the Meuse, Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
and the Moselle
Moselle
rivers, and was the original territory of the Franks, including both the so-called Salians and Rhineland
Rhineland
Franks, which Clovis I
Clovis I
conquered after first taking control of the bordering part of Roman Gaul, now northern France, which is sometimes described in this period as Neustria. In AD 567, Austrasia
Austrasia
became a separate kingdom within the Frankish kingdom and was ruled by Sigebert I
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Marginalia
Marginalia
Marginalia
(or apostils) are marks made in the margins of a book or other document. They may be scribbles, comments, glosses (annotations), critiques, doodles, or illuminations.Contents1 Biblical manuscripts 2 History 3 Recent studies 4 Writers known for their marginalia 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBiblical manuscripts[edit] Biblical manuscripts have liturgical notes at the margin, for liturgical use. Numbers of texts' divisions are given at the margin (κεφάλαια, Ammonian Sections, Eusebian Canons). There are some scholia, corrections and other notes usually made later by hand in the margin. Marginalia
Marginalia
may also be of relevance because many ancient or medieval writers of these marginalia may have had access to other relevant texts that, although they may have been widely copied at the time, have since then been lost due to wars, prosecution or censorship
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Carolingian Renaissance
The Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire. It occurred from the late eighth century to the ninth century, which took inspiration from the Christian Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the fourth century. During this period, there was an increase of literature, writing, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms, and scriptural studies. The Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance occurred mostly during the reigns of Carolingian
Carolingian
rulers Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and Louis the Pious
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Passion Of Christ
Portals: Christianity
Christianity
Bible  Book:Life of Jesusv t eIn Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring"[1]) is the short final period in the life of Jesus
Jesus
covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of Salvation History. The commemoration begins with the portent grievance of the Blessed Virgin Mary, followed by Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and includes his institution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
at Last Supper, his bleeding and Agony in the Garden
Agony in the Garden
followed by his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests and ultimate trial before Pontius Pilate. Those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as the "Passion narratives"
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Pontifex Maximus
The Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest"[1][2][3]) was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus, it was subsumed into the Imperial office
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Computus
Computus
Computus
( Latin
Latin
for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter. Because the date is based on a calendar-dependent equinox rather than the astronomical one, there are differences between calculations done according to the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar. The name has been used for this procedure since the early Middle Ages, as it was considered the most important computation of the age. For most of their history Christians have calculated Easter independently of the Jewish calendar. In principle, Easter
Easter
falls on the Sunday following the full moon that follows the northern spring equinox (the paschal full moon). However, the vernal equinox and the full moon are not determined by astronomical observation
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Easter
Easter,[nb 1] also called Pascha (Greek, Latin)[nb 2] or Resurrection Sunday,[3][4] is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
from the dead, described in the New Testament
New Testament
as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary
Calvary
c
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Passover
Passover
Passover
or Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪsɑːx/;[4] from Hebrew פֶּסַח‬ Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday. Jews
Jews
celebrate Passover
Passover
as a commemoration of their liberation by God from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses
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Nisan
Nisan
Nisan
(or Nissan; Hebrew: נִיסָן‎, Standard Nisan
Nisan
Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year. The name of the month is of Assyrian-Babylonian origin; in the Torah
Torah
it is called the month of the Aviv. (e.g. Exodus 13:4 בְּחֹ֖דֶשׁ הָאָבִֽיב ḥōḏeš hā-’āḇîḇ) Assyrians today refer to the month as the "month of happiness." It is a spring month of 30 days. Nisan
Nisan
usually falls in March– April
April
on the Gregorian calendar. In the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
in the Tanakh
Tanakh
it is referred to as Nisan
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Jewish Calendar
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי‬, Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates to commemorate the death of a relative), and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been steadily declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar. The present Hebrew calendar is the product of evolution, including a Babylonian influence. Until the Tannaitic period (approximately 10–220 CE), the calendar employed a new crescent moon, with an additional month normally added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year
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