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Anjar, Lebanon
Anjar (Arabic: عنجر‎ / ALA-LC: ‘Anjar; Armenian: Անճար French: Anjar, meaning "unresolved or running river"), also known as Haoush Mousa (Arabic: حوش موسى‎ / Ḥawsh Mūsá), is a town of Lebanon
Lebanon
located in the Bekaa Valley. The population is 2,400,[1] consisting almost entirely of Armenians. The total area is about twenty square kilometers (7.7 square miles). In the summer, the population swells to 3,500, as members of the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
return to visit there.Contents1 History 2 Religion and education 3 Anjar antiquities 4 See also 5 Gallery 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksHistory[edit] The town's establishment is normally attributed to the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph al-Walid I at the beginning of the 8th century as a palace-city. However, historian Jere L
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Jere L. Bacharach
Jere L. Bacharach (born 1938 in New York) is Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.Contents1 Academia 2 Publications 3 Awards 4 ReferencesAcademia[edit] Bacharach attended Trinity College, receiving his B.A. in 1960, Harvard University
Harvard University
receiving his M.A. in 1962, and the University of Michigan where he received his Ph.D. in 1967. He has been a member of the University of Washington
University of Washington
faculty since 1967 having officially retired in 2004 although he taught his last class in the fall term, 2007. While a member of the University of Washington
University of Washington
faculty, Bacharach served as Chair, Department of History; Director, Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies; and Interim Chair, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization
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Capital (architecture)
In architecture the capital (from the Latin
Latin
caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order. These form the three principal types on which all capitals are based
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Ummayad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Al-Walid I
Al-Walīd ibn ‘Abd al-Malik Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎House Banu Abd ShamsDynasty UmayyadFather Abd al-Malik ibn MarwanMother Walida bint al-Abbas[1]Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎) or Al-Walid I
Al-Walid I
(668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph
Caliph
who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.[2][3]Contents1 Biography 2 Conquests 3 Islamic culture and civilization 4 Sources 5 References 6 BibliographyBiography[edit] Walid was born in Medina
Medina
in 668 to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. Walid's mother was from the Central Arabian tribe of Banu Hanifah
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Spolia
Spolia
Spolia
(Latin, 'spoils'), repurposed building stone for new construction, or decorative sculpture reused in new monuments, is the result of an ancient and widespread practice whereby stone that has been quarried, cut, and used in a built structure, is carried away to be used elsewhere. The practice is of particular interest to historians, archaeologists and architectural historians since the gravestones, monuments and architectural fragments of antiquity are frequently found embedded in structures built centuries or millennia later. Archaeologist Philip A. Barker gives the example of a late Roman period (probably 1st century) tombstone from Wroxeter
Wroxeter
that could be seen to have been cut down and undergone weathering while in use as part of an exterior wall, then, possibly as late as the 5th century, reinscribed for reuse as a tombstone.[1] The practice was common in late antiquity
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Theophanes The Confessor
Theophanes may refer to: Saints[edit] Theodorus and Theophanes
Theodorus and Theophanes
(ca
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Military Of Syria
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (Arabic: القوات المسلحة العربية السورية‎, French: Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic. They consist of the Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Force, and several paramilitary forces, such as the National Defence Force. According to the Syrian constitution, the President of Syria
President of Syria
is the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Armed Forces. The military is a conscripted force; males serve in the military upon reaching the age of 18, but they are exempted from service if they don't have another brother who can take care of their parents
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Peristyle
In Hellenistic Greek[1] and Roman architecture[2] a peristyle (/ˈpɛrəˌstaɪl/; from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard. Tetrastoon (from Greek τετράστῳον, "four arcades") is a rarely used archaic term for this feature. In the Christian ecclesiastical architecture that developed from the Roman basilica, a courtyard peristyle and its garden came to be known as a cloister.Contents1 In Roman architecture 2 Other uses 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksIn Roman architecture[edit] In rural settings a wealthy Roman could surround a villa with terraced gardens; within the city Romans created their gardens inside the domus. The peristylium was an open courtyard within the house; the columns or square pillars surrounding the garden supported a shady roofed portico whose inner walls were often embellished with elaborate wall paintings of landscapes and trompe-l'oeil architecture
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Decumanus Maximus
In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia.[1] The main decumanus was the Decumanus Maximus, which normally connected the Porta Praetoria (in a military camp, closest to the enemy) to the Porta Decumana
Porta Decumana
(away from the enemy).[2][3] This name comes from the fact that the via decumana or decimana (the tenth) separated the Tenth Cohort from the Ninth in the legionary encampment, in the same way as the via quintana separated the Fifth Cohort from the Sixth. In the middle, or groma, the Decumanus Maximus
Decumanus Maximus
crosses the perpendicular Cardo
Cardo
Maximus, the primary north-south road that was the usual main street
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Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
(Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak'elakan Yekeghetsi)[a] is the national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities.[3] Armenia
Armenia
was the first country to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as its official religion in the early 4th century.[4] The church claims to have originated in the missions of Apostles
Apostles
Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century, by tradition. It is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Orthodox Church or Gregorian Church. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles
Apostles
Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, and St. Gregory the Illuminator
Gregory the Illuminator
as merely the first official governor of the church
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Holy See Of Cilicia
The Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia
Cilicia
(Armenian: Կաթողիկոսութիւն Հայոց Մեծի Տանն Կիլիկիոյ) is a hierarchal see of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Since 1930, the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia has been headquartered in Antelias, Lebanon
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Paul The Apostle
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
(Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paulos, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ul ha-Tarsi; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saulos Tarseus),[4][5][6] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ
Christ
to the first century world.[7] Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[8][9] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew
Jew
and a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences
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Cardo Maximum
A cardo was the Latin name given to a north-south street in Ancient Roman cities and military camps as an integral component of city planning. The cardo maximus was the main or central north–south-oriented street.Contents1 Description 2 Examples2.1 Apamea, Syria 2.2 Jerash, Jordan 2.3 Cologne, Germany 2.4 Jerusalem 2.5 Beit She'an, Israel 2.6 Beirut, Lebanon3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksDescription[edit] The cardo maximus was the "hinge" or axis of the city, derived from the same root as cardinal and as such was generally lined with shops and vendors, and served as a hub of economic life. Most Roman cities also had a Decumanus Maximus, an east-west street that served as a secondary main street. Due to varying geography, in some cities the Decumanus is the main street and the Cardo is secondary, but in general the cardo maximus served as the primary street
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