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Animal Testing
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments. Experimental research with animals is usually conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, defense establishments and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry.[1] The focus of animal testing varies on a continuum from pure research, focusing on developing fundamental knowledge of an organism, to applied research, which may focus on answering some question of great practical importance, such as finding a cure for a disease. Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, breeding, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing
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SV40
SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It was named for the effect it produced on infected green monkey cells, which developed an unusual number of vacuoles
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Robert Koch
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (English: /kɔːx, kɔːk/;[3][4] German: [kɔx]; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease,[5] which included experiments on humans
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Erasistratus
Erasistratus (/ˌɛrəˈsɪstrətəs/; Greek: Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus, he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart, and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. Erasistratus was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries. He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. He also thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain. He then differentiated between the function of the sensory and motor nerves, and linked them to the brain
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Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. 216), often Anglicized as Galen
Galen
and better known as Galen
Galen
of Pergamon (/ˈɡeɪlən/),[1] was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.[2][3][4] Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen
Galen
influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy,[5] physiology, pathology,[6] pharmacology,[7] and neurology, as well as philosophy[8] and logic. The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen
Galen
received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher
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Medicine In Medieval Islam
Medicine
Medicine
is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Dublin Zoo
Dublin Zoo (Irish: Zú Bhaile Átha Cliath[2][3]), in Phoenix Park, Dublin, is a zoo in Ireland, and one of Dublin's most popular attractions. Opened in 1831,[4] the zoo describes its role as conservation, study, and education
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Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(/ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization
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Germ Theory Of Disease
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease. It states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms. These small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, animals, and other living hosts. Their growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause a disease. "Germ" may refer to not just a bacterium but to any type of microorganism, especially one which causes disease, such as protists, fungi, viruses, prions, or viroids.[1] Microorganisms that cause disease are called pathogens, and the diseases they cause are called infectious diseases. Even when a pathogen is the principal cause of a disease, environmental and hereditary factors often influence the severity of the disease, and whether a potential host individual becomes infected when exposed to the pathogen. The germ theory was proposed by Girolamo Fracastoro
Girolamo Fracastoro
in 1546, and expanded upon by Marcus von Plenciz in 1762
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Anthrax
Anthrax
Anthrax
is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis.[2] It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection.[9] Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted.[1] The skin form presents with a small blister with s
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Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
(TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB).[1] Tuberculosis
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Joseph Wright Of Derby
Joseph Wright ARA (3 September 1734 – 29 August 1797), styled Joseph Wright of Derby, was an English landscape and portrait painter. He has been acclaimed as "the first professional painter to express the spirit of the Industrial Revolution".[1] Wright is notable for his use of chiaroscuro effect, which emphasises the contrast of light and dark, and, for his paintings of candle-lit subjects
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Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning
(also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell). It also refers to the learning process that results from this pairing, through which the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response (e.g. salivation) that is usually similar to the one elicited by the potent stimulus. These basic facts, which require many qualifications (see below), were first studied in detail by Ivan Pavlov through experiments with dogs. Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior
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Glanders
Glanders (from Middle English
Middle English
glaundres or Old French
Old French
glandres, both meaning glands;[1] Latin: malleus, German: Rotz; also known as "equinia", "farcy", and "malleus")[2] is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. It can be contracted by other animals, such as dogs, cats, goats and humans. It is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei, usually by ingestion of contaminated feed or water. Signs of glanders include the formation of nodular lesions in the lungs and ulceration of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. The acute form results in coughing, fever, and the release of an infectious nasal discharge, followed by septicaemia and death within days. In the chronic form, nasal and subcutaneous nodules develop, eventually ulcerating
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Insulin
1A7F, 1AI0, 1AIY, 1B9E, 1BEN, 1EFE, 1EV3, 1EV6, 1EVR, 1FU2, 1FUB, 1G7A, 1G7B, 1GUJ, 1HIQ, 1HIS, 1HIT, 1HLS, 1HTV, 1HUI, 1IOG, 1IOH, 1J73, 1JCA, 1JCO, 1K3M, 1KMF, 1LKQ, 1LPH, 1MHI, 1MHJ, 1MSO, 1OS3, 1OS4, 1Q4V, 1QIY, 1QIZ, 1QJ0, 1RWE, 1SF1, 1SJT, 1SJU, 1T0C, 1T1K, 1T1P, 1T1Q, 1TRZ, 1TYL, 1TYM, 1UZ9, 1VKT, 1W8P, 1XDA, 1XGL, 1XW7, 1ZEG, 1ZEH, 1ZNJ, 2AIY, 2C8Q, 2C8R, 2CEU, 2G54, 2G56, 2H67, 2HH4, 2HHO, 2HIU, 2JMN, 2JUM, 2JUU, 2JUV, 2JV1, 2JZQ, 2K91, 2K9R, 2KJJ, 2KJU, 2KQP, 2KQQ, 2KXK, 2L1Y, 2L1Z, 2LGB, 2M1D, 2M1E, 2M2M, 2M2N, 2M2O, 2M2P, 2OLY, 2OLZ, 2OM0, 2OM1, 2OMG, 2OMH, 2OMI, 2QIU, 2R34, 2R35, 2R36, 2RN5, 2VJZ, 2VK0, 2W44, 2WBY, 2WC0, 2WRU, 2WRV, 2WRW, 2WRX, 2WS0, 2WS1, 2WS4, 2WS6, 2WS7, 3AIY, 3BXQ, 3E7Y, 3E7Z, 3EXX, 3FQ9, 3HYD, 3I3Z, 3I40, 3ILG, 3INC, 3IR0, 3Q6E, 3ROV, 3TT8, 3U4N, 3UTQ, 3UTS, 3UTT, 3V19, 3V1G, 3W11, 3W12, 3W13, 3W7Y, 3W7Z, 3W80, 3ZI3, 3ZQR, 3ZS2, 3ZU1, 4AIY, 4AJX, 4AJZ, 4AK0, 4AKJ, 4EFX, 4EWW, 4EWX, 4EWZ, 4EX0, 4EX1, 4EXX, 4EY1, 4EY9, 4EYD, 4EYN, 4EYP, 4F0N, 4F0O, 4F1A
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