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Angle Of Repose
The angle of repose, or critical angle of repose,[1] of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or dip relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping. At this angle, the material on the slope face is on the verge of sliding. The angle of repose can range from 0° to 90°. The morphology of the material affects the angle of repose; smooth, rounded sand grains cannot be piled as steeply as can rough, interlocking sands. The angle of repose can also be affected by additions of solvents; if a small amount of water is able to bridge the gaps between particles, electrostatic attraction of the water to mineral surfaces will increase the angle of repose, and related quantities such as the soil strength. When bulk granular materials are poured onto a horizontal surface, a conical pile will form
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Oceanic Trench
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long. These oceanographic features are the deepest parts of the ocean floor. Oceanic trenches are a distinctive morphological feature of convergent plate boundaries, along which lithospheric plates move towards each other at rates that vary from a few millimeters to over ten centimeters per year. A trench marks the position at which the flexed, subducting slab begins to descend beneath another lithospheric slab. Trenches are generally parallel to a volcanic island arc, and about 200 km (120 mi) from a volcanic arc. Oceanic trenches typically extend 3 to 4 km (1.9 to 2.5 mi) below the level of the surrounding oceanic floor. The greatest ocean depth measured is in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench, at a depth of 11,034 m (36,201 ft) below sea level
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Coffee Bean
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Just like ordinary cherries, the coffee fruit is also a so-called stone fruit. Even though the coffee beans are seeds, they are referred to as "beans" because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits – coffee cherries or coffee berries – most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single seed, instead of the usual two. This is called a "peaberry"
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Wood Ash
Wood
Wood
ash is the residue powder left after the combustion of wood, such as burning wood in a home fireplace or an industrial power plant. It is used traditionally by gardeners as a good source of potash.Contents1 Composition1.1 Variability in assessment 1.2 Measurements2 Uses2.1 Fertilizers 2.2 Composts 2.3 Pottery 2.4 Soaps 2.5 Bio-leaching3 See also 4 ReferencesComposition[edit] Variability in assessment[edit] Many studies have been conducted regarding the chemical composition of wood ash, with widely varying results. Some quote calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as the major constituent,[1] others find no carbonate at all, but calcium oxide (CaO) instead.[2] Some show as much as twelve percent iron oxide[2] while others show none,[3] though iron oxide is often introduced through contamination with soil
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Asphalt
Asphalt, also known as bitumen (UK: /ˈbɪtʃəmən/, US: /bɪˈtjuːmən, baɪ-/),[1] is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used.[2] The word is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos.[3] The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.[4] The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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Bark (botany)
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term.[1] It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm. The outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm
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Bran
Bran, also known as miller's bran,[1] is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of the combined aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from grains, the grains lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran
Bran
is present in and may be in any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley, rye and millet. Bran
Bran
is not the same as chaff, which is a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran
Bran
is particularly rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins, and dietary minerals
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Chalk
Chalk
Chalk
( /ˈtʃɔːk/) is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite
Calcite
is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint
Flint
(a type of chert) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction
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Clover
subg. Chronosemium subg. Trifoliumsect. Glycyrrhizum sect. Involucrarium sect. Lupinaster sect. Paramesus sect. Trichocephalum sect. Trifoliastrum sect. Trifolium sect. VesicastrumSynonymsAmoria C. Presl[2] Bobrovia A. P. Khokhr.[2] Chrysaspis Desv.[2] Lupinaster
Lupinaster
Fabr.[2] Ursia Vassilcz.[2] Xerosphaera Soják[2] Clover
Clover
or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes on mountains in the tropics. They are small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants. Clover
Clover
can be evergreen
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Coconut
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.[1] The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word.[2] The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.[3] Coconuts are known for their versatility ranging from food to cosmetics.[4] They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their endosperm containing a large quantity of water[4] (also called "milk"),[5] and when immature, may be harvested for the potable coconut water
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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Mountaineering
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Crushed Stone
Crushed stone
Crushed stone
or angular rock is a form of construction aggregate, typically produced by mining a suitable rock deposit and breaking the removed rock down to the desired size using crushers. It is distinct from gravel which is produced by natural processes of weathering and erosion, and typically has a more rounded shape.Contents1 Uses 2 Background 3 United States statistical data 4 Landscape use 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksUses[edit] Angular crushed stone is the key material for macadam road construction which depends on the interlocking of the individual stones' angular faces for its strength.[1] Crushed natural stone is also used similarly without a binder for riprap, railroad track ballast, and filter stone
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Malt
Malt
Malt
is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.[1][2][3][4] Malting grains develops the enzymes required for modifying the grain's starches into various types of sugar, including the monosaccharide glucose, the disaccharide maltose, the trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. Depending on when the malting process is stopped one gets a preferred starch enzyme ratio and partly converted starch into fermentable sugars. Malt also contains small amounts of other sugars, such as sucrose and fructose, which are not products of starch modification but were already in the grain
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Snow
Snow
Snow
refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.[2] It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size, precipitate and accumulate on surfaces, then metamorphose in place, and ultimately melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms
Snowstorms
organize and develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles, columns and rime. As snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering, sublimation and freeze-thaw
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Urea
50g/L ethanol ~4 g/L acetonitrile[3]Basicity (pKb) 13.9[4] Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-33.4·10−6 cm3/molStructureDipole moment4.56 DThermochemistryCRC HandbookStd enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)-79.634 kcal/molGibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)-47.12 kcal/molPharmacologyATC codeB05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet JT BakerNFPA 7041 2 0Flash point Non-flammableLethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)8500 mg/kg (oral, rat)Related compoundsRelated ureasThiourea HydroxycarbamideRelated compounds
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