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Anesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness
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Paresthesia
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.[1] The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic, and may have any of dozens of possible underlying causes. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.Contents1 Causes1.1 Transient 1.2 Chronic 1.3 Acroparesthesia 1.4 Dentistry 1.5 Other2 Diagnostic approach 3 Treatment 4 Etymology 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] Transient[edit] Paresthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The briefest, electric shock type of paresthesia can be caused by tweaking the ulnar nerve near the elbow
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Sensation (psychology)
Sensation is the body's detection of external or internal stimulation (e.g., eyes detecting light waves, ears detecting sound waves). Perception
Perception
utilizes the brain to make sense of the stimulation (e.g., seeing a chair, hearing a guitar). Sensation involves three steps:Sensory receptors detect stimuli. Sensory stimuli are transduced into electrical impulses (action potentials) to be decoded by the brain. Electrical impulses move along neural pathways to specific parts of the brain wherein the impulses are decoded into useful information (perception).For example, when touched by a soft feather, mechanoreceptors – which are sensory receptors in the skin – register that the skin has been touched. That sensory information is then turned into neural information through a process called transduction
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Sleep
Sleep
Sleep
is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.[1] It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of being comatose. Sleep
Sleep
occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes: REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body
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Nucleus (neuroanatomy)
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system,[1] located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.[2] The neurons in one nucleus usually have roughly similar connections and functions.[3] Nuclei are connected to other nuclei by tracts, the bundles (fascicles) of axons (nerve fibers) extending from the cell bodies. A nucleus is one of the two most common forms of nerve cell organization, the other being layered structures such as the cerebral cortex or cerebellar cortex. In anatomical sections, a nucleus shows up as a region of gray matter, often bordered by white matter. The vertebrate brain contains hundreds of distinguishable nuclei, varying widely in shape and size
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Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.[1] The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.[2] This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response. Within the brain, the autonomic nervous system is regulated by the hypothalamus. Autonomic functions include control of respiration, cardiac regulation (the cardiac control center), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor center), and certain reflex actions such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting. Those are then subdivided into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain
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Memory
Memory
Memory
is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory
Memory
is vital to experiences and related to limbic systems, it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action.[1] If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, relationships, nor personal identity (Eysenck, 2012). Often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term (or working) memory, and long-term memory (Baddely, 2007).[better source needed] This can be related to the neuron
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Cardiac Surgery
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis
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Relative Risk
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. Relative risk includes two important features: (i) a comparison of risk between two "exposures" puts risks in context, and (ii) "exposure" is ensured by having proper denominators for each group representing the exposure.[1][2] R R = p event when exposed p event when not exposed displaystyle RR= frac p_ text event when exposed p_ text event when not exposed Risk Disease statusPresent AbsentSmoke
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Hospital Readmission
A hospital readmission is an episode when a patient who had been discharged from a hospital is admitted again within a specified time interval. Readmission rates have increasingly been used as an outcome measure in health services research and as a quality benchmark for health systems. Hospital readmission rates were formally included in reimbursement decisions for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, which penalizes health systems with higher than expected readmission rates through the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program.[1][2] Since the inception of this penalty, there have been other programs that have been introduced, with the aim to decrease hospital readmission. The Community Based Care Transition Program, Independence At Home Demonstration Program, and Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative are all examples of these programs
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Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
(PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).[6] Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.[1] Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg may also be present such as a red, warm, swollen, and painful leg.[1] Signs of a PE include low blood oxygen levels, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, and sometimes a mild fever.[10] Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.[2] PE
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Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
(MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more ofte
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Narcotic
The term narcotic (/nɑːrˈkɒtɪk/, from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine (while thebaine itself is only very mildly psychoactive, it is a crucial precursor in the vast majority of semi-synthetic opioids, such as oxycodone)
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Sensory Receptor
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.[citation needed] This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord.[1] This sensory information travels along afferent nerve fibers in an afferent or sensory nerve, to the brain via the spinal cord
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Long-term Memory
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely. It is defined in contrast to short-term and working memory, that persist for only about 18 to 30 seconds
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Anxiolysis
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds or agents. Some recreational drugs such as alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) induce anxiolysis initially; however, studies show that many of these drugs are anxiogenic. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety disorder and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Anxiolytics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorder
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