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Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов; 21 May 1921 – 14 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.[1] He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's RDS-37, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Sakharov later became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; these efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1975
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Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov
Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov (Russian: Андрей Николаевич Сахаров; born 1930 in Kulebaki) is an anti-Normanist Russian and Soviet historian. His major monographs include The Diplomacy of Ancient Rus (1980) and its sequel, The Diplomacy of Svyatoslav (1982). For his studies of early medieval diplomacy Sakharov was elected a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1991).[1] In 1993, Sakharov was appointed Director of the Russian History Institute, affiliated with the Academy of Sciences. He initiated a campaign to purge the institute of his Normanist opponents.[2] It came under much criticism, forcing Sakharov into retirement in 2010. Sakharov was an active member of the Presidential Commission of the Russian Federation to Counter Attempts to Falsify History to the Detriment of Russia's Interests that existed between 2009 and 2012. References[edit]^ Обратное провидение (in Russian). Грани.Ру. 19 May 2009
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Capital Punishment In Russia
Capital punishment
Capital punishment
in Russia [1] currently is not allowed. There exists both an implicit moratorium established by President Boris Yeltsin in 1996, and an explicit one, established by the Constitutional Court of Russia
Constitutional Court of Russia
in 1999 and most recently reaffirmed in 2009. Russia has not executed anyone since 1996.Contents1 History1.1 The Russian death penalty 1.2 Russian Republic 1.3 RSFSR and the Soviet Union2 Current status2.1 Statute limitations 2.2 Moratorium3 Public opinion 4 Russian opinion on the practice in Europe 5 Procedure 6 See also 7 External links 8 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Russian death penalty[edit] In medieval Russia capital punishment was extremely rare, and was even banned in many, if not most principalities. The Law of Yaroslavl (ca 1017) put restrictions on what crimes warranted execution
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Nuclear Physicist
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.[1] Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Eastern Slavic Naming Customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
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Nuclear Disarmament
Nuclear disarmament
Nuclear disarmament
refers to both the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons and to the end state of a nuclear-weapons-free world, in which nuclear weapons are completely eliminated. Nuclear disarmament groups include the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Peace Action, Greenpeace, Soka Gakkai International, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Mayors for Peace, Global Zero, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, and the Nuclear Age Peace
Peace
Foundation. There have been many large anti-nuclear demonstrations and protests. On June 12, 1982, one million people demonstrated in New York City's Central Park
Central Park
against nuclear weapons and for an end to the cold war arms race. It was the largest anti-nuclear protest and the largest political demonstration in American history.[2][3] In recent years, some U.S
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Civil Liberties
Civil liberties
Civil liberties
or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, and the right to bodily integrity
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European Parliament
     GUE-NGL (52)      S&D (189)      Greens-EFA (51)      ALDE (68)      EPP (217)      ECR (73)      EFDD (44)      ENF (37)      Non-Inscrits
Non-Inscrits
(20)Committees22Budgets Budgetary Control Economic & Monetary Affairs Employment and Social Affairs Environment, Public Health & Food Safety Industry, Research & Energy Internal Market & Consumer Protection Transport & Tourism Regional Development Agriculture
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Pianist
A pianist (/ˈpiːənɪst/ PEE-ə-nist, /piˈænɪst/ pee-AN-ist) is an individual musician who plays the piano. Since most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, pianists have a wide repertoire and a wide variery of styles to choose from, among them traditional classical music, jazz, blues, and all sorts of popular music, including rock and roll. Most pianists can, to an extent, easily play other keyboard-related instruments such as the synthesizer, harpsichord, celesta, and the organ
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Eastern Front (World War II)
Soviet victory Soviet Union
Soviet Union
occupies Central, Eastern, Northeastern and Southeastern Europe and establishes pro-Soviet communist puppet governments in countries including Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and East Germany. Establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Beginning of the Cold War
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Nuclear Physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.[1] Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics
Particle physics
evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Aşgabat
Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt̪][citation needed]; Russian: Ашхабад, tr. Ashkhabad, IPA: [ɐʂxɐˈbat]) — named Poltoratsk (Russian: Полтора́цк, IPA: [pəltɐˈrat͡sk]) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range. The city was founded in 1881, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation•  Khanate of Khi
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Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
(Russian: Улья́новск, IPA: [ʊˈlʲjanəfsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River
Volga River
705 kilometers (438 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 613,786 (2010 Census);[5] 635,947 (2002 Census);[10] 625,155 (1989 Census).[11] The city, founded as Simbirsk
Simbirsk
(Симби́рск), is the birthplace of Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
and Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
(born Ulyanov), for whom it was renamed in 1924
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Russian Academy Of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization[2] chartered by the Government of Russia. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions
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