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Andreas Hillgruber
Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian. Hillgruber was influential as a military and diplomatic historian who played a leading role in the Historikerstreit of the 1980s. In his book Zweierlei Untergang, he wrote that Germans should "identify" with the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
fighting on the Eastern Front and asserts that there was no moral difference between Allied policies towards Germany
Germany
in 1944-45 and the genocide waged against the Jews.[1] British historian Richard J. Evans
Richard J

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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Carol II Of Romania
Carol II (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania
Romania
from 8 June 1930 until his enforced abdication on 6 September 1940. Carol was the eldest son of Ferdinand I and became crown prince upon the death of his grand-uncle, King Carol I in 1914. He was the first of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
kings of Romania
Romania
to be born in the country (both of his predecessors were born and grew up in Germany and only came to Romania
Romania
as adults). Carol, by contrast, spoke Romanian as his first language and was the first member of the Romanian royal family to be raised in the Orthodox faith.[1] He possessed a hedonistic personality that contributed to the controversies marring his reign, and his life was marked by numerous scandals
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Weimar Republic
The Weimar
Weimar
Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] ( listen)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state remained Deutsches Reich, unchanged since 1871. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
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Ion Antonescu
Ion Antonescu
Ion Antonescu
(Romanian pronunciation: [iˈon antoˈnesku] ( listen); June 15, 1882 – June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships. After the war, he was convicted of war crimes and executed. A Romanian Army
Romanian Army
career officer who made his name during the 1907 peasants' revolt and the World War I
World War I
Romanian Campaign, the antisemitic Antonescu sympathized with the far right and fascist National Christian and Iron Guard
Iron Guard
groups for much of the interwar period. He was a military attaché to France
France
and later Chief of the General Staff, briefly serving as Defense Minister in the National Christian cabinet of Octavian Goga
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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Hitler
(German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
from 1933 to 1945 and Führer
Führer
("Leader") of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1934 to 1945.[a] As dictator, Hitler
Hitler
initiated World War II
World War II
in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust. Hitler
Hitler
was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany
Germany
in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I
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Hochschule Für Musik Und Theater München
The University of Music
Music
and Performing Arts Munich
Munich
(in German Hochschule für Musik und Theater München), also sometimes called the Academy of Music
Music
and Performing Arts, is one of the most respected traditional vocational universities in Germany, specialising in music and the performing arts. The main building it currently occupies is the former Führerbau
Führerbau
of the NSDAP, located at Arcisstraße 12, on the eastern side of the Königsplatz, Munich. Teaching and other events also take place at Luisenstraße 37a, Gasteig, the Prinzregententheater
Prinzregententheater
(theatre studies), and in Wilhelmstraße (ballet)
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
(English: general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;  listen (help·info); abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used
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Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
(22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command ( Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
or OKW) in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. According to David Stahel, Keitel was "well known and [...] reviled as Hitler's dependable mouthpiece and habitual yes-man" among his military colleagues.[1]:277 Following the war, Keitel was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Military Tribunal
International Military Tribunal
at Nuremberg. He was found guilty, sentenced to death and executed in 1946
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Habilitation
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Despite all changes implemented in the European higher education systems during the Bologna Process, it is the highest qualification level issued through the process of a university examination and remains a core concept of scientific careers in these countries.[1] The degree is conferred for a habilitation thesis based on independent scholarship, which was reviewed by and successfully defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that of a doctoral dissertation
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.[1] Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through rule by one leader and an all-encompassing propaganda campaign, which is disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that is often marked by political repression, personality cultism, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of speech, mass surveillance and widespread use of terror. A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an "elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society".[2] The concept was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist and later Nazi academic Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
as well as Italian fascists
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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