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Andre Gill
André Gill, self-portrait André Gill
André Gill
(17 October 1840 – 1 May 1885) was a French caricaturist. Born Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guînes
Guînes
at Paris, the son of the Comte de Guînes
Guînes
and Sylvie-Adeline Gosset. Gill studied at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He adopted the pseudonym André Gill
André Gill
in homage to his hero, James Gillray.[1] Gill began illustrating for Le Journal Amusant. Gill, however, became known for his work for the weekly four-sheet newspaper La Lune, edited by Francis Polo, in which he drew portraits for a series entitled The Man of the Day. He worked for La Lune
La Lune
from 1865 to 1868
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Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
(US: /mæˈneɪ/ or UK: /ˈmæneɪ/; French: [edwaʁ manɛ]; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future originally envisioned for him, and became engrossed in the world of painting. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the start of modern art
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Adolphe Thiers
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers
Adolphe Thiers
(French: [lwi adɔlf tjɛʁ]; 15 April 1797 – 3 September 1877) was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic. Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830, which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1848, which established the Second French Republic. He served as a prime minister in 1836, 1840 and 1848, dedicated the Arc de Triomphe, and arranged the return to France of the ashes of Napoleon
Napoleon
from Saint-Helena. He was first a supporter, then a vocal opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (who served from 1848 to 1852 as President of the Second Republic and as Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III, reigning from 1852 to 1871)
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Pumpkin
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. Some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have also been derived from Cucurbita
Cucurbita
maxima. Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata, are also sometimes called "pumpkin". In New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere.[1] Native to North America,[2] pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use and are used both in food and recreation
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Charles Philipon
Charles Philipon
Charles Philipon
(19 April 1800 – 25 January 1861). Born in Lyon, he was a French lithographer, caricaturist and journalist. He was the editor of the La Caricature and of Le Charivari, both satirical political journals.Charles PhiliponContents1 Early years 2 Birth of a business 3 Intense years (1830-1835)3.1 The campaign against Louis-Philippe (1830-1832) 3.2 Trial and conviction 3.3 Republican commitment (1833-1835) 3.4 From political cartoon to satire of manners (after 1835)4 La Silhouette 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksEarly years[edit] Charles Philipon
Charles Philipon
came from a small, middle-class, Lyons family. His father, Étienne Philipon, was a hatter and wallpaper manufacturer. He enthusiastically welcomed the revolution of 1789
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Pear
About 30 species; see textMany varieties, such as the Nashi pear, are not "pear-shaped".The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus /ˈpaɪrəs/, in the family Rosaceae. It is also the name of the pomaceous fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices, while others are cultivated as trees.Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 History 4 Major recognized taxa 5 Cultivation5.1 Harvest 5.2 Diseases and pests6 Production 7 Storage 8 Uses 9 Nutrition 10 Cultural references 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External linksEtymology[edit] The word pear is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek apios (from Mycenaean ápisos),[1] of Semitic origin (pirâ), meaning "fruit"
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Louis-Philippe Of France
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
(6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King
King
of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist
Orléanist
party. As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France
France
and a cousin of King
King
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and Louis XIV, he had earlier found it necessary to flee France
France
during the period of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in order to avoid imprisonment and execution, a fate that actually befell his father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
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Bohemian
A Bohemian
Bohemian
(/boʊˈhiːmiən/) is a resident of Bohemia, a region of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
or the former Kingdom of Bohemia, a region of the former Crown of Bohemia
Bohemia
(lands of the Bohemian
Bohemian
Crown). In English, the word "Bohemian" was used to denote the Czech people
Czech people
as well as the Czech language
Czech language
before the word "Czech" became prevalent in the early 20th century.[1] In a separate meaning, "Bohemian" may also denote "a socially unconventional person, especially one who is involved in the arts" according to Oxford Dictionaries Online. (See Bohemianism).[1] Etymology[edit] Bohemian
Bohemian
traditional costumesThe name "Bohemia" derives from the name of the Boii, a Celtic tribe who inhabited that area towards the later La Tène period
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Charles Cros
Charles Cros
Charles Cros
or Émile-Hortensius- Charles Cros
Charles Cros
(October 1, 1842 – August 9, 1888) was a French poet and inventor. He was born in Fabrezan, Aude, France, 35 km to the East of Carcassonne. Cros was a well-regarded poet and humorous writer. As an inventor, he was interested in the fields of transmitting graphics by telegraph and making photographs in color, but he is perhaps best known for being the first person to conceive a method for reproducing recorded sound, an invention he named the Paleophone. Charles Cros
Charles Cros
died in Paris at the age of 45.Contents1 Inventions 2 Poetry 3 Bibliography3.1 Non-fiction 3.2 Poetry4 Miscellaneous 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksInventions[edit] In 1860 Cros began studies in medicine, but he soon abandoned them for a life of literary and scientific pursuits
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Paul Verlaine
Paul-Marie Verlaine (/vɛərˈlɛn/;[1] French: [vɛʁlɛn]; 30 March 1844 – 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Marriage and military service 1.3 Relationships with Rimbaud and Létinois 1.4 Final years2 Style 3 Portraits 4 Historical footnote 5 In popular culture 6 Works 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte (now the Lycée Condorcet) in Paris and then took up a post in the civil service. He began writing poetry at an early age, and was initially influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader, Leconte de Lisle. Verlaine's first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, a publication founded by poet Louis-Xavier de Ricard
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Rimbaud
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
(/ræmˈboʊ/[2] or /ˈræmboʊ/; French: [aʁtyʁ ʁɛ̃bo] ( listen); 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism. Born in Charleville-Mézières, he started writing at a very young age and was a prodigious student, but abandoned his formal education in his teenage years to run away from home amidst the Franco-Prussian War.[3] During his late adolescence and early adulthood he began the bulk of his literary output, but completely stopped writing at the age of 21, after assembling one of his major works, Illuminations. Rimbaud was known to have been a libertine and a restless soul, having engaged in an at times violent romantic relationship with fellow poet Paul Verlaine, which lasted nearly two years
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Settee
A couch (British English, U.S. English)[1], also known as a sofa or settee ( Canadian English
Canadian English
and British English), is a piece of furniture for seating two or three people in the form of a bench, with armrests, that is partially or entirely upholstered, and often fitted with springs and tailored cushions.[2][3] Although a couch is used primarily for seating, it may be used for sleeping.[4] In homes, couches are normally found in the family room, living room, den, or the lounge. They are sometimes also found in non-residential settings such as hotels, lobbies of commercial offices, waiting rooms, and bars. The term couch is predominantly used in Ireland, North America, South Africa and Australia
Australia
whereas the terms sofa and settee (U and non-U) are generally used in the United Kingdom
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Hearse
A hearse is a large funeral vehicle used to carry a coffin/casket/urn from a church or funeral home to a cemetery. In the funeral trade, hearses are often called funeral coaches.Contents1 History 2 North America and Europe 3 Japan 4 Hong Kong 5 Others 6 Other uses of the term 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]From Queensland, Australia c. 1900, horse-drawn carriage built by A. E. E Roberts Carriage WorksThe name is derived, through the French herse, from the Latin herpex, which means a harrow. The funeral hearse was originally a wooden or metal framework, which stood over the bier or coffin and supported the pall. It was provided with numerous spikes to hold burning candles, and, owing to the resemblance of these spikes to the teeth of a harrow, was called a hearse. Later on, the word was applied, not only to the construction above the coffin, but to any receptacle in which the coffin was placed
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Eclipse
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. This alignment of three celestial objects is known as a syzygy.[1] Apart from syzygy, the term eclipse is also used when a spacecraft reaches a position where it can observe two celestial bodies so aligned. An eclipse is the result of either an occultation (completely hidden) or a transit (partially hidden). The term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. However, it can also refer to such events beyond the Earth–Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon
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Jules Vallès
Jules Vallès
Jules Vallès
(10 June 1832 – 14 February 1885) was a French journalist and author.Contents1 Early life 2 Republican opposition 3 1870 4 1871 and the Paris Commune 5 Le Cri du Peuple 6 Jacques Vingtras and exile 7 Amnesty and last days 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Vallès was born in Le Puy-en-Velay, Haute-Loire. His father was a supervisor of studies (pion), later a teacher, and unfaithful to Jules' mother. Jules was a brilliant student. The Revolution of 1848 in France found him participating in protests in Nantes where his father had been assigned to teach. It was during this period that he began to align himself with the budding socialist movement. After being sent to Paris to prepare for his entrance into Lycée Condorcet (1850) he neglected his studies altogether
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