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Andean
The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz
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Tibetan Plateau
The Tibetan Plateau
Plateau
(Tibetan: བོད་ས་མཐོ།, Wylie: bod sa mtho), also known in China
China
as the Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Plateau[1] or the Qing–Zang Plateau[2] (Chinese: 青藏高原; pinyin: Qīng–Zàng Gāoyuán) or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia[3][4][5][6] and East Asia,[7][8][9][10] covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
and Qinghai
Qinghai
in western China, as well as part of Ladakh
Ladakh
in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It stretches approximately 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) north to south and 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) east to west
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Earth's Rotation
Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
is the rotation of Planet Earth
Earth
around its own axis. Earth
Earth
rotates eastward, in prograde motion. As viewed from the north pole star Polaris, Earth
Earth
turns counterclockwise. The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole
North Pole
or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole. The South Pole
South Pole
is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica. Earth
Earth
rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun, but once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below)
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La Paz
La Paz
La Paz
(/lɑː ˈpɑːz/[4]), officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz
La Paz
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnwestɾa seˈɲoɾa ðe la ˈpas]; English: Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago)[5] in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia
Bolivia
(the constitutional capital of Bolivia
Bolivia
is Sucre)
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Sucre
1538Pre-Hispanic Times: Charcas September 29, 1538 (official) :La Plata de la Nueva Toledo (City of The Silver of the New Toledo) August 6, 1826: Sucre
Sucre
(Capital Section)Founded by Pedro Anzures as “La Plata” in 1538Government • Type C.S
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Medellín
Medellín
Medellín
(Spanish pronunciation: [meðeˈʝin]), officially the Municipality of Medellín
Medellín
(Spanish: Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia
Colombia
and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in the Aburrá Valley, a central region of the Andes Mountains
Andes Mountains
in South America
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Depression (geology)
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions form by various mechanisms. Erosion-related:Blowout: a depression created by wind erosion typically in either a partially vegetated sand dune ecosystem or dry soils (such as a post-glacial loess environment).[1] Glacial valley: a depression carved by erosion by a glacier. River valley: a depression carved by fluvial erosion by a river. Area of subsidence caused by the collapse of an underlying structure such as sinkholes in karst terrain. Sink: an endorheic depression generally containing a persistent or intermittent (seasonal) lake, a salt flat (playa) or dry lake, or an ephemeral lake.Collapse-related:Sinkhole: a depression formed as a result of the collapse of rocks lying above a hollow
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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20th Parallel South
The 20th parallel south
20th parallel south
is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane
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18th Parallel South
The 18th parallel south
18th parallel south
is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane
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Summit (topography)
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Mountain Range
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Equatorial Bulge
An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation. A rotating body tends to form an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere. The Earth
Earth
has an equatorial bulge of 42.77 km (26.58 mi); that is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12,756.27 km (7,926.38 mi)) is 42.77 km more than that measured between the poles (12,713.56 km (7,899.84 mi)). An observer standing at sea level on either pole, therefore, is 21.36 km closer to Earth's centrepoint than if standing at sea level on the equator. The value of Earth's radius may be approximated by the average of these radii. An often-cited result of Earth's equatorial bulge is that the highest point on Earth, measured from the center outwards, is the peak of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador, rather than Mount Everest
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Continental Crust
Continental crust
Continental crust
is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves. This layer is sometimes called sial because its bulk composition is more felsic compared to the oceanic crust, called sima which has a more mafic bulk composition. Changes in seismic wave velocities have shown that at a certain depth (the Conrad discontinuity), there is a reasonably sharp contrast between the more felsic upper continental crust and the lower continental crust, which is more mafic in character. The continental crust consists of various layers, with a bulk composition that is intermediate to felsic. The average density of continental crust is about 2.7 g/cm3, less dense than the ultramafic material that makes up the mantle, which has a density of around 3.3 g/cm3
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Mendoza Province
The Province of Mendoza (Spanish pronunciation: [menˈdosa]) is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, and to the west with the republic of Chile; the international limit is marked by the Andes
Andes
mountain range. Its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina
Argentina
with 5.35% of the country's total area
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