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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Empire Of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea. The empire was first formed as a revolt against the rule of the Angelos dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, which had deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos
Komnenos
in 1185
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Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna
(Italian pronunciation: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] ( listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
until the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although an inland city, Ravenna
Ravenna
is connected to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Candiano Canal
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Tarquin The Proud
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
(died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is commonly known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus (Latin for "proud, arrogant, lofty").[1] Ancient accounts of the regal period mingle history and legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, and to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Octavian
Augustus
Augustus
(Latin: Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who served as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome
Rome
from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[note 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate
Principate
has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir
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Augustus
Augustus
Augustus
(Latin: Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who served as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome
Rome
from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[note 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate
Principate
has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Magister Equitum
The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse
Master of the Horse
or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate
Roman magistrate
appointed as lieutenant to a dictator. His nominal function was to serve as commander of the
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Triumvirate
A triumvirate (Latin: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (Latin: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term troika (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate"
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Founding Of Rome
The founding of Rome
Rome
can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus
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Fall Of The Western Roman Empire
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over the West; modern historians mention factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperors, the internal struggles for power, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Overthrow Of The Roman Monarchy
The overthrow of the Roman monarchy, a political revolution in ancient Rome, took place around 509 BC and resulted in the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius
Tarquinius
Superbus, and the establishment of the Roman Republic. The semi-legendary Roman histories[1] tell that while the king was away on campaign, his son Sextus Tarquinius
Sextus Tarquinius
raped a noblewoman, Lucretia. Afterwards she revealed the offence to various Roman noblemen, and then committed suicide. The Roman noblemen, led by Lucius Junius Brutus, obtained the support of the Roman aristocracy and the people to expel the king and his family and to institute a republic. The Roman army
Roman army
supported Brutus, and the king went into exile
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire
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Roman Governor
A Roman governor
Roman governor
was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law
Roman law
throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire. A Roman governor
Roman governor
is also known as a propraetor or proconsul. The generic term in Roman legal language was Rector provinciae, regardless of the specific titles, which also reflect the province's intrinsic and strategic status, and corresponding differences in authority. By the time of the early empire, there were two types of provinces — senatorial and imperial — and several types of governor would emerge
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