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Ancient Indian Festivals
This article describes different festivals celebrated in ancient India as revealed by the epics Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana. like mountain festival of Raivataka, festival of Brahma, and the bamboo festival were mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. The epic Ramayana
Ramayana
also mentions about several other festivals or events that led to modern day festivals like Divali
Divali
(celebrated when Raghava Rama
Raghava Rama
returned to Kosala Kingdom
Kosala Kingdom
from Lanka slaying Ravana). Festivals mentioned in Mahabharata[edit] Festivals were a common feature of the religion of Yadavas
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Mahabharata
The Mahābhārata (US: /məhɑːˈbɑːrətə/,[1] UK: /ˌmɑːhəˈbɑːrətə/;[2] Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪əm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.[3] The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty". The Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava
Kaurava
and the Pāṇḍava princes. It also contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha (12.161). Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, and the story of Ṛṣyasringa, often considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa
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Pandavas
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu
Hindu
epic text, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti
Kunti
and Madri, who was the princess of Madra. Their names are Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula
Nakula
and Sahadeva
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Indra
Indra
Indra
(/ˈɪndrə/, Sanskrit: इन्द्र) is a Vedic deity in Hinduism,[1] a guardian deity in Buddhism,[2] and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.[3] His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical to those of the Indo-European deities such as Zeus, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, and Odin (Wotan).[1][4][5] In the Vedas, Indra
Indra
is the king of Svarga
Svarga
(Heaven) and the Devas. He is the god of the heavens, lightning, thunder, storms, rains and river flows.[6] Indra
Indra
is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda.[7] He is celebrated for his powers, and the one who kills the great symbolic evil (Asura) named Vritra
Vritra
who obstructs human prosperity and happiness
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Puru (Vedic Tribe)
The Purus were a clan, or a confederation of clans, mentioned many times in the Rigveda. RV 7.96.2 locates them at the banks of the Sarasvati
Sarasvati
River. There were several factions of Purus, one being the Bharatas.[citation needed] Purus rallied many other groups against King Sudas of the Bharata, but were defeated in the Battle of the Ten Kings (RV 7.18, etc.,).Contents1 Early history 2 Kuru Kings 3 Porus 4 Rigvedic Puru clan lineage 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesEarly history[edit] India's name Bharat or Bharat-Varsh is named after a descendant of the Puru dynasty King Bharat. There were two main Vedic cultures in ancient India. The first was a northern kingdom centered on the Sarasvati-Drishadvati river region dominated by the Purus and the Ikshvakus. The second was a southern culture along the coast of the Arabian Sea and into the Vindhya Mountains, dominated by the Turvashas and Yadus and extending into groups yet further south
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Shiva
Shiva
Shiva
(/ˈʃiːvə, ˈʃɪ-/; Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.[10][11] Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer of evil and the transformer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu.[1][12] In Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe.[13][14][15] In the goddess tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma
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Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rajasthan
(/ˈrɑːdʒəstæn/ Hindustani pronunciation: [raːdʒəsˈt̪ʰaːn] ( listen); literally, "Land of Kings")[4] is India's largest state by area (342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4% of India's total area). It is located on the north western side of the India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the " Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Desert" and "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh
Sindh
to the west, along the Sutlej- Indus
Indus
river valley
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Pushkar
Pushkar
Pushkar
(Hindi: पुष्कर) is a town in the Ajmer district
Ajmer district
in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is situated about 10 km (6.2 mi) northwest of Ajmer
Ajmer
and about 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of Jaipur.[1] It is a pilgrimage site for Hindus and Sikhs. Pushkar
Pushkar
has many temples. Most of the temples and ghats in Pushkar
Pushkar
are from the 18th century and later, because many temples were destroyed during Muslim conquests in the area.[1][2] Subsequently, the destroyed temples were rebuilt. The most famous among Pushkar
Pushkar
temples is the red spired Brahma Temple built during the 14th century CE.
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Virata
Virata
Virata
(Sanskrit: विराट, lit. huge) in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the king of Virata
Virata
Kingdom, in whose court the Pandavas
Pandavas
spent a year in concealment during their exile. Virata
Virata
was married to Queen Sudeshna
Sudeshna
and was the father of Prince Uttara and Princess Uttarā, who married Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna. Abhimanyu and Uttara's son Parikshit
Parikshit
succeeded Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
to the throne of Hastinapura, after the war of Mahabharata.[1] He was killed during a Kauravas
Kauravas
attack in the Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
along with his sons
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Matsya Kingdom
Matsya Kingdom
Matsya Kingdom
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "fish") was one of the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
(great kingdoms). The kingdom was established by an Indo-Aryan tribe of Vedic India. By the late Vedic period, they ruled a kingdom located south of the Kurus, and west of the Yamuna
Yamuna
river which separated it from the kingdom of the Panchalas. It roughly corresponded to the former state of Jaipur
Jaipur
in Rajasthan, and included the whole of Hindaun, Alwar
Alwar
with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagari (present-day Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king, Virata. In Pali literature, the Matsya tribe is usually associated with the Surasena. The western Matsya was the hill tract on the north bank of the Chambal River
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Ramayana
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Govardhan Hill
Govardhana Hill (Devanagari: गोवर्धन), also called Mount Govardhana, Giri Raj and Royal Hill, is a sacred Hindu site in the Mathura district
Mathura district
of Uttar Pradesh, India
India
on a 8km long hill located in the area of Govardhan
Govardhan
and Radha
Radha
Kund,[1][2] which is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Vrindavan.[3] Known as Govardhan
Govardhan
or Giriraj it is the sacred center of Braj
Braj
and is identified as a natural form of the Lord Krishna
Krishna
himself (Govardhana sila).[4][5]Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Background 4 Sites 5 Legends5.1 The lifting of Govardhan6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The name 'Govardhana' has two primary translations
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Ravana
Ravana
Ravana
(IAST: Rāvaṇa; /ˈrɑːvənə/;[1] Telugu: రావణ, Sanskrit: रावण, Tamil: இராவணன், Malayalam: രാവണൻ),Sinhala: මහා රාවණා), is the primary antagonist in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana
Ramayana
where he is depicted as a Rakshasa, the Great king of Lanka.[a][2][3] Ravana
Ravana
is the son of Visravas Muni and Kaikesi
Kaikesi
and grandson of Pulastya Muni. Ravana, a devotee of Shiva, is depicted and described as a great scholar, a Brahmin, a capable ruler and a maestro of the veena (plucked stringed instrument). He is also described as extremely powerful king and has ten heads. His paramount ambition was to overpower and dominate the devas. His ten heads represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas
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Lanka Kingdom
Lanka
Lanka
/ˈləŋkɑː/ is the name given in Hindu
Hindu
epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana
Ravana
in the epics of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. The fortress was situated on a plateau between three mountain peaks known as the Trikuta Mountains. The ancient city of Lankapura is thought to have been burnt down by Hanuman. After its king, Ravana, was killed by Rama
Rama
with the help of Ravana's brother Vibhishana, the latter was crowned king of Lankapura. The site of Lankā is identified with Sri Lanka
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Kosala Kingdom
Kosala
Kosala
Proper or Uttara Kosala
Kosala
is the kingdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. Ayodhya
Ayodhya
was its capital, presently in Faizabad
Faizabad
district, Uttar Pradesh. Rama's sons Lava
Lava
and Kusha inherited parts of this kingdom. Lava
Lava
ruled from the city called Sravasti
Sravasti
and Kusa from the city called Kushavati. A colony of Kosala kings existed in Madhya Pradesh. It was called Dakshina Kosala. Rama's mother Kausalya
Kausalya
was from this kingdom. King Rama
Rama
extended his influence up to the island-kingdom of Lanka
Lanka
situated in the southern ocean
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