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Anaximander
Anaximander
Anaximander
(/æˌnæksɪˈmændər/; Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,[4] a city of Ionia
Ionia
(in modern-day Turkey). He belonged to the Milesian school
Milesian school
and learned the teachings of his master Thales. He succeeded Thales
Thales
and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and, arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils.[5] Little of his life and work is known today. According to available historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies,[6] although only one fragment of his work remains
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Water (classical Element)
Water
Water
is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing. In contemporary esoteric traditions, it is commonly associated with the qualities of emotion and intuition.Contents1 Greek and Roman tradition 2 Indian tradition 3 Ceremonial magic 4 Modern witchcraft 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksGreek and Roman tradition[edit] Water
Water
was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom tried to reduce all things to a single substance. However, Empedocles
Empedocles
of Acragas (c. 495 – c. 435 BC) selected four archai for his four roots: air, fire, water and earth. Empedocles
Empedocles
roots became the four classical elements of Greek philosophy. Plato
Plato
(427–347 BC) took over the four elements of Empedocles
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Politics
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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Trier
Trier
Trier
(German pronunciation: [tʁiːɐ̯] ( listen); Luxembourgish: Tréier [ˈtʀɜɪ̯ɐ]), formerly known in English as Treves (French: Trèves, IPA: [tʁɛv]) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany
Germany
on the banks of the Moselle. Trier
Trier
lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and within the important Moselle wine region. Founded by the Celts
Celts
in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was later conquered by the Romans
Romans
in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum ( Latin
Latin
for "The City of Augustus
Augustus
among the Treveri")
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Olympiad
An Olympiad
Olympiad
(Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of the Ancient Greeks. During the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, it was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad
Olympiad
began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad
Olympiad
would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd year of the 699th Olympiad
Olympiad
begins in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2018. A modern Olympiad
Olympiad
refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
for the summer sports
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Apollodorus Of Athens
Apollodorus of Athens
Athens
(Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, Panaetius
Panaetius
the Stoic, and the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace. He left (perhaps fled) Alexandria
Alexandria
around 146 BC, most likely for Pergamon, and eventually settled in Athens. Literary works[edit]Chronicle (Χρονικά), a Greek history in verse from the fall of Troy
Troy
in the 12th century BC to roughly 143 BC (although later it was extended as far as 109 BC), and based on previous works by Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
of Cyrene. Its dates are reckoned by its references to the archons of Athens
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Themistius
Themistius (Greek: Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent),[1] was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher. He flourished in the reigns of Constantius II, Julian, Jovian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius I; and he enjoyed the favour of all those emperors, notwithstanding their many differences, and the fact that he himself was not a Christian. He was admitted to the senate by Constantius in 355, and he was prefect of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 384 on the nomination of Theodosius
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Rhetoric
Rhetoric
Rhetoric
is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. It can also be in a visual form; as a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition.[1] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion."[2] Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery
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Prose
Prose
Prose
is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.Contents1 Background 2 Etymology 3 Origins 4 Structure 5 Types 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBackground[edit] There are critical debates on the construction of prose: "... the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is obscure".[1] Prose
Prose
in its simplicity and loosely defined structure is broadly adaptable to spoken dialogue, factual discourse, and to topical and fictional writing
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Theophrastus
Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(/ˌθiːəˈfræstəs/; Greek: Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC[1]), a Greek native of Eresos
Eresos
in Lesbos,[2] was the successor to Aristotle
Aristotle
in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens
Athens
at a young age and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle
Aristotle
who took to Theophrastus
Theophrastus
his writings. When Aristotle
Aristotle
fled Athens, Theophrastus took over as head of the Lyceum.[2] Theophrastus
Theophrastus
presided over the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. He is often considered the father of botany for his works on plants
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Doxography
Doxography (Greek: δόξα - "an opinion, a point of view" + γράφειν - "to write, to describe") is a term used especially for the works of classical historians, describing the points of view of past philosophers and scientists. The term was coined by the German classical scholar Hermann Alexander Diels. Classic Greek philosophy[edit] A great many philosophical works have been lost; our limited knowledge of such lost works comes chiefly through the doxographical works of later philosophers, commentators, and biographers. Philosophers such as Plato
Plato
and Aristotle
Aristotle
also act as doxographers, as their comments on the ideas of their predecessors indirectly tell us what their predecessors' beliefs were
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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