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Analytical Marxism
Analytical Marxism
Marxism
is an approach to Marxist
Marxist
theory that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s. It was mainly associated with the September Group of academics, so called because of their biennial September meetings to discuss common interests. Self-described as "Non-Bullshit Marxism",[1] the group was characterized, in the words of David Miller, by "clear and rigorous thinking about questions that are usually blanketed by ideological fog."[2] The most prominent members of the group were G. A. Cohen, John Roemer, Jon Elster, Adam Przeworski, Erik Olin Wright, Hillel Steiner, and Philippe van Parijs. Members of this school seek to apply the techniques of analytic philosophy, along with tools of modern social science such as rational choice theory to the elucidation of the theories of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and his successors
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Capital (economics)
In economics, capital consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. Capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services.[1] Adam Smith
Adam Smith
defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510.[2] How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable
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Wage Labour
Wage
Wage
labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract.[1] These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined.[2] In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention
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Historical Determinism
Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions. See also[edit]Geographic determinism Geopolitics Bad faith (existentialism) Determinism Economic determinism False consciousness False necessity Free Will Human nature Hegelianism Dialectical materialism Self determinationExternal links[edit]Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Class Conflict
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of communist Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents
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Theses On Feuerbach
The "Theses on Feuerbach" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels
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Factors Of Production (Marxism)
Production
Production
may be: In Economics: Production
Production
(economics) Outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) Produc
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Marxist Sociology
Marxist
Marxist
sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.[1] Marxism
Marxism
itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology, particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist
Marxist
sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ..
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Marx's Theory Of Alienation
Karl Marx's theory of alienation
Marx's theory of alienation
describes the estrangement (Ger. Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes. The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production, is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour
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Class Consciousness
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.[1][2] It is an awareness that is key to sparking a revolution that would, "create a dictatorship of the proletariat, transforming it from a wage-earning, property-less mass into the ruling class" according to Karl Marx.[3]Contents1 Marxist theory 2 Georg Lukács' History and Class Consciousness
Consciousness
(1923) 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMarxist theory[edit]
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Commodity (Marxism)
In classical political economy and especially Karl Marx's critique of political economy, a commodity is any good or service ("products" or "activities"[1]) produced by human labour[2] and offered as a product for general sale on the market.[3] Some other priced goods are also treated as commodities, e.g. human labor-power, works of art and natural resources, even though they may not be produced specifically for the market, or be non-reproducible goods. Marx's analysis of the commodity is intended to help solve the problem of what establishes the economic value of goods, using the labor theory of value. This problem was extensively debated by Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow, among others
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Surplus Product
Surplus product
Surplus product
(German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in his critique of political economy
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism. The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning, while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution
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Scientific Socialism
Scientific socialism
Scientific socialism
is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will:Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government. And just as the right of force and the right of artifice retreat before the steady advance of justice, and must finally be extinguished in equality, so the sovereignty of the will yields to the sovereignty of the reason, and must at last be lost in scientific socialism.[1]Later in 1880, Friedrich Engels[2] used the term to describe Karl Marx's social-political-economic theory
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