HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Amyloid Beta
Amyloid
Amyloid
beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.[2] The peptides derive from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cleaved by beta secretase and gamma secretase to yield Aβ. Aβ molecules can aggregate to form flexible soluble oligomers which may exist in several forms. It is now believed that certain misfolded oligomers (known as "seeds") can induce other Aβ molecules to also take the misfolded oligomeric form, leading to a chain reaction akin to a prion infection
[...More...]

"Amyloid Beta" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Pfam
Pfam
Pfam
is a database of protein families that includes their annotations and multiple sequence alignments generated using hidden Markov models.[1][2][3] The most recent version, Pfam
Pfam
31.0, was released in March 2017 and contains 16,712 families.[4]Contents1 Uses 2 Features<
[...More...]

"Pfam" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy Body dementia (LBD) is an umbrella term[1] that includes Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)—two dementias characterized by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain.[2][3][4] The two diseases are similar in many ways, suggesting there may be a common pathophysiological mechanism, with PDD and DLB at opposite ends of a LBD spectrum, and a shared component of protein deposits in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites.[5] Despite differences in the timing of the appearance of symptoms, the two dementias "show remarkably convergent neuropathological changes at autopsy".[2] The synucleinopathies (DLB, PDD and Parkinson's disease) have shared features of parkinsonism, impaired cognition, sleep disorders, and visual hallucinations.[3] References[edit]^ Walker Z, Possin KL, Boeve BF, Aarsland D (October 2015). "Lewy body dementias". Lancet (Review). 386 (10004): 1683–97. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00462-6
[...More...]

"Lewy Body Dementia" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Kinase
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. This process is known as phosphorylation, where the substrate gains a phosphate group and the high-energy ATP molecule donates a phosphate group. This transesterification produces a phosphorylated substrate and ADP. Conversely, it is referred to as dephosphorylation when the phosphorylated substrate donates a phosphate group and ADP gains a phosphate group (producing a dephosphorylated substrate and the high energy molecule of ATP). These two processes, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, occur four times during glycolysis.[2][3][4] Kinases are part of the larger family of phosphotransferases. Kinases should not be confused with phosphorylases, which catalyze the addition of inorganic phosphate groups to an acceptor, nor with phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups
[...More...]

"Kinase" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Enzyme
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
[...More...]

"Enzyme" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress
reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress
from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2− (superoxide radical), OH (hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide).[1] Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling
[...More...]

"Oxidative Stress" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid),[4] a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes and is essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
allows animal cells to function without a cell wall (which in other species protects membrane integrity and cell viability); this allows animal cells to change shape rapidly. In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid[5] and vitamin D. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals
[...More...]

"Cholesterol" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Transcription Factor
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA
DNA
to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA
DNA
sequence.[1][2] The function of TFs is to regulate - turn on and off - genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell migration and organization (body plan) during embryonic development; and intermittently in response to signals from outside the cell, such as a hormone
[...More...]

"Transcription Factor" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Inflammation
Inflammation
Inflammation
(from Latin
Latin
inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants,[1] and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators
[...More...]

"Inflammation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Glymphatic System
The glymphatic system (or glymphatic clearance pathway) is a functional waste clearance pathway for the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The pathway consists of a para-arterial influx route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain parenchyma, coupled to a clearance mechanism for the removal of interstitial fluid (ISF) and extracellular solutes from the interstitial compartments of the brain and spinal cord. Exchange of solutes between CSF and ISF is driven by arterial pulsation and regulated during sleep by the expansion and contraction of brain extracellular space
[...More...]

"Glymphatic System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons,[1] each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment
[...More...]

"Brain" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Inclusion Body Myositis
Inclusion body
Inclusion body
myositis (IBM) is an inflammatory muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness and wasting of both distal and proximal muscles, most apparent in the muscles of the arms and legs. There are two types: sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), which is more common, and hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM).[1] In sporadic inclusion body myositis [MY-oh-sigh-tis], two processes, one autoimmune and the other degenerative, appear to occur in the muscle cells in parallel. The inflammation aspect is characterized by the cloning of T cells
T cells
that appear to be driven by specific antigens to invade muscle fibers
[...More...]

"Inclusion Body Myositis" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Tau Protein
1I8H, 4GLR, 2ON9, 3OVL, 4E0M, 4E0N, 4E0O, 4FL5, 4NP8, 2MZ7, 4TQE, 4Y5I, 4Y32, 5DMG, 4Y3B, 5HF3, 5E2W, 5E2VIdentifiersAliases MAPT, DDPAC, FTDP-17, MAPTL, MSTD, MTBT1, MTBT2, PPND, PPP1R103, TAU, microtubule associated protein tau, Tau
Tau
proteinsExternal IDs OMIM: 157140 MGI: 97180 HomoloGene: 74962 GeneCards: MAPT Gene
[...More...]

"Tau Protein" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Protein Folding
Protein
Protein
folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional
3-dimensional
structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil.[1] Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of m RNA
RNA
to a linear chain of amino acids. This polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the first figure). As the polypeptide chain is being synthesized by the ribosome, the linear chain begins to fold into its three dimensional structure. Folding begins to occur even during translation of the polypeptide chain
[...More...]

"Protein Folding" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Ion Channel
Ion
Ion
channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. Their functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion
Ion
channels are present in the membranes of all excitable cells.[1] Ion
Ion
channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).[2] The study of ion channels often involves biophysics, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, while using techniques including voltage clamp, patch clamp, immunohistochemistry, X-ray crystallography, fluoroscopy, and RT-PCR
[...More...]

"Ion Channel" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Calcium
Calcium
Calcium
is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
[...More...]

"Calcium" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse
.