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Amoeba (operating System)
Amoeba is a distributed operating system developed by Andrew S. Tanenbaum and others at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The aim of the Amoeba project was to build a timesharing system that makes an entire network of computers appear to the user as a single machine. Development at the Vrije Universiteit was stopped: the source code of the latest version (5.3) were last modified on 30 July 1996.[1] The Python programming language was originally developed for this platform.[3]Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] The goal of the Amoeba project was to construct an operating system for networks of computers that would present the network to the user as if it were a single machine
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Application Programming Interface
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library. An API specification can take many forms, but often includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, variables or remote calls. POSIX, Windows API and ASPI are examples of different forms of APIs
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Load Balancing (computing)
In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.[1] Load balancing aims to optimize resource use, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload of any single resource. Using multiple components with load balancing instead of a single component may increase reliability and availability through redundancy
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Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum (born March 16, 1944), sometimes referred to by the handle ast,[6] is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in the Netherlands.[7][8][9][10][11] He is best known as the author of MINIX, a free Unix-like
Unix-like
operating system for teaching purposes, and for his computer science textbooks, regarded as standard texts in the field
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Computer Terminal
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.[1] The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal,[2], and predated the use of a computer screen by decades.[3] Early terminals were inexpensive devices but very slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal. The function of a terminal is confined to display and input of data; a device with significant local programmable data processing capability may be called a "smart terminal" or fat client
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Server (computing)
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers
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TCP/IP
The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received
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Multithreading (software)
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.[1] The implementation of threads and processes differs between operating systems, but in most cases a thread is a component of a process. Multiple threads can exist within one process, executing concurrently and sharing resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources. In particular, the threads of a process share its executable code and the values of its variables at any given time.Contents1 Single vs multiprocessor systems 2 History 3 Threads vs
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Remote Procedure Call
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction. That is, the programmer writes essentially the same code whether the subroutine is local to the executing program, or remote.[1] This is a form of client–server interaction (caller is client, executor is server), typically implemented via a request–response message-passing system. In the object-oriented programming paradigm, RPC calls are represented by remote method invocation (RMI). The RPC model implies a level of location transparency, namely that calling procedures is largely the same whether it is local or remote, but usually they are not identical, so local calls can be distinguished from remote calls
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Unix
Unix
Unix
(/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.[3] Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix
Unix
variants from vendors like the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(BSD), Microsoft
Microsoft
(Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(Solaris)
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Single-system Image
In distributed computing, a single system image (SSI) cluster is a cluster of machines that appears to be one single system.[1][2][3] The concept is often considered synonymous with that of a distributed operating system,[4][5] but a single image may be presented for more limited purposes, just job scheduling for instance, which may be achieved by means of an additional layer of software over conventional operating system images running on each node.[6] The interest in SSI clusters is based on the perception that they may be simpler to use and administer than more specialized clusters. Different SSI systems may provide a more or less complete illusion of a single system.Contents1 Features of SSI clustering systems1.1 Process migration 1.2 Process checkpointing 1.3 Single process space 1.4 Single root 1.5 Single I/O space 1.6 Single IPC space 1.7 Cluster IP address2 Examples 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesFeatures of SSI clustering systems[edit] Differ
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POSIX
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)[1] is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society
IEEE Computer Society
for maintaining compatibility between operating systems
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X Window System
The X Window System
X Window System
(X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like
UNIX-like
computer operating systems. X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the display device and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface – this is handled by individual programs. As such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly; different programs may present radically different interfaces. X originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) in 1984. The protocol[clarification needed] has been version 11 (hence "X11") since September 1987
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X Terminal
In computing, an X terminal
X terminal
is a display/input terminal for X Window System client applications. X terminals enjoyed a period of popularity in the early 1990s when they offered a lower total cost of ownership alternative to a full Unix
Unix
workstation. An X terminal
X terminal
runs an X 'server'. In X, the usage of "client" and "server" is from the viewpoint of the programs: the X server
X server
supplies a screen, keyboard, mouse and touchscreen to client applications
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Distributed Computing
Distributed computing
Distributed computing
is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages.[1] The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal
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