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Amnesty International
AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL (commonly known as AMNESTY and AI) is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights that claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organisation is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated." Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in 1961, following the publication of the article " The Forgotten Prisoners " in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyer Peter Benenson . Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards. It works to mobilize public opinion to put pressure on governments that let abuse take place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights"
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Labour Party (UK)
The LABOUR PARTY is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom . It has been described as a broad church , bringing together an alliance of social-democratic , socialist and trade-unionist outlooks. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights. Labour is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance , and holds observer status in the Socialist International . The Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
in 1924 and from 1929 to 1931
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Hu Feng
HU FENG (simplified Chinese : 胡风; traditional Chinese : 胡風; pinyin : Hú Fēng) (1902–1985) was a Chinese writer and literary and art theorist . He came from Qichun in the province of Hubei
Hubei
. In 1929, he went to study in Japan. In 1933, he was expelled from Japan and he joined the League of Left-Wing Writers in Shanghai
Shanghai
. He was friends with Lu Xun
Lu Xun
. It was 1937, after the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
, the journal Qiyue 七月 ("July") out. Further stations of his life were Wuhan
Wuhan
and Chongqing
Chongqing

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Religious Society Of Friends
QUAKERS (or FRIENDS) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS. The Evangelical Friends Church International uses the phrase FRIENDS CHURCH. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "that of God
God
in every person", and therefore they profess the priesthood of all believers , a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter
First Epistle of Peter
. They include those with evangelical , holiness , liberal , and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers. In 2012, there were 377,055 adult Quakers
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António De Oliveira Salazar
ANTóNIO DE OLIVEIRA SALAZAR GCTE GCSE GColIH GCIC (Portuguese pronunciation: ; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese economist and statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. Salazar founded and controlled the Estado Novo ("New State"), the corporatist authoritarian government that ruled Portugal until 1974. In recent decades, "New sources and methods are being employed by Portuguese historians in an attempt to come to grips with a dictatorship which lasted 48 years." After the Portuguese coup d\'état of 28 May 1926 , Salazar entered public life with the support of President Óscar Carmona , initially as finance minister and later as prime minister
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Estado Novo (Portugal)
The ESTADO NOVO (Portuguese pronunciation: , "New State"), or the SECOND REPUBLIC, was the nationalist corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal
Portugal
in 1933. It evolved from the Ditadura Nacional formed after the coup d\'état of 28 May 1926 against the democratic and unstable First Republic
Republic
. Together, the Ditadura Nacional
Ditadura Nacional
and Estado Novo are recognised as the Second Portuguese Republic. The Estado Novo, greatly inspired by conservative and authoritarian ideologies, was developed by António de Oliveira Salazar , prime minister of Portugal
Portugal
from 1928 to 1968, when he fell ill and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano
Marcelo Caetano

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London Underground
The LONDON UNDERGROUND (also known simply as THE UNDERGROUND, or by its nickname THE TUBE) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
, Essex
Essex
and Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
, the world's first underground railway. Opened in 1863, it is now part of the Circle , Hammersmith the first line to operate underground electric traction trains , the City later, smaller, roughly circular tunnels – which gave rise to its nickname, the Tube – were dug through at a deeper level. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles (400 km) of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface
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Coimbra
COIMBRA (Portuguese pronunciation: ) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres (123.3 sq mi). The third-largest urban centre in Portugal
Portugal
(after Lisbon
Lisbon
and Porto
Porto
), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra
Coimbra
, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra , comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area 4,336 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi). Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era , when Coimbra
Coimbra
was the settlement of Aeminium , are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus
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Campaign For Nuclear Disarmament
The CAMPAIGN FOR NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT (CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty . It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear , chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK. CND was formed in 1957 and since that time has periodically been at the forefront of the peace movement in the UK. It claims to be Europe 's largest single-issue peace campaign . Between 1959 and 1965 it organised the Aldermaston March , which was held over the Easter weekend from the Atomic Weapons Establishment near Aldermaston to Trafalgar Square , London
London

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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Patrick Duncan (anti-apartheid Activist)
PATRICK BAKER DUNCAN (1918–1967) was a political thinker and activist, whose three books promoted human rights in South Africa and expressed concern regarding the relationship of humans with the Earth . An anti-apartheid activist, Duncan was a supporter of universal suffrage who was harassed and imprisoned by the Apartheid
Apartheid
regime for his dissident activities. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Political career * 2.1 In South Africa * 2.2 In exile * 3 Personal life * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 External links EARLY LIFEBorn 1918 in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
, was the son of Sir Patrick Duncan . Duncan was educated first in South Africa and later in England, at Winchester College
Winchester College
and at Balliol College , Oxford
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Ashton Jones
ASHTON BRYAN JONES (1896–1979) was an American Quaker
Quaker
minister active from the 1930s to 1970s as an advocate of Civil Rights for African Americans in the United States
United States
. Though White and from the deeply segregated state of Georgia , Jones was arrested dozens of times throughout the American South for preaching equality between all people. He was a close associate of Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. In 1967, Jones signed a public statement declaring his intention to refuse to pay income taxes in protest against the U.S. war against Vietnam . REFERENCES * ^ The Epic of Ashton Jones Ebony Magazine , October 1965 * ^ King\'s Journey Took Him to Southern California on Several Occasions Archived July 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine

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Public Trial
PUBLIC TRIAL or OPEN TRIAL is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial . The term should not be confused with show trial . CONTENTS * 1 United States * 2 Canada * 3 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* 4 See also * 5 References UNITED STATESThe Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution
establishes the right of the accused to a public trial. The right to a public trial is strictly enforced, but is not absolute. Trials may in exceptional cases be regulated. Closures are decided case-by-case by the judge evaluating a claimed danger to a substantial or legitimate public interest. But whatever the interest at stake, the likelihood of danger to that interest must meet a "‘substantial probability’ test"
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Olga Ivinskaya
OLGA VSEVOLODOVNA IVINSKAYA (Russian : Ольга Всеволодовна Ивинская; June 16, 1912, Tambov
Tambov
– September 8, 1995, Moscow
Moscow
) was a Russian poet and writer. She was friend and lover of Nobel Prize-winning writer Boris Pasternak
Boris Pasternak
during the last 13 years of his life and the inspiration for the character of Lara in his novel Doctor Zhivago (1957). CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Relationship with Pasternak * 3 Final years * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEIvinskaya, of German-Polish descent, was born in Tambov
Tambov
to a provincial high school teacher. In 1915, the family moved to Moscow
Moscow
. After graduating from the Editorial Workers Institute in Moscow
Moscow
in 1936, she worked as an editor at various literary magazines
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Constantin Noica
CONSTANTIN NOICA (Romanian: ; July 25 1909 – 4 December 1987) was a Romanian philosopher , essayist and poet . His preoccupations were throughout all philosophy, from epistemology , philosophy of culture, axiology and philosophic anthropology to ontology and logics , from the history of philosophy to systematic philosophy, from ancient to contemporary philosophy, from translating and interpretation to criticism and creation. In 2006 he was included to the list of the 100 Greatest Romanians of all time by a nationwide poll. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Philosophy
Philosophy
* 3 Books * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYNoica was born in Vitănești , Teleorman County . He studied at the Dimitrie Cantemir and Spiru Haret lyceums , both in Bucharest
Bucharest
. At Spiru Haret his math teacher was Dan Barbilian (pen name Ion Barbu, poet and mathematician)
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Luis Taruc
LUIS TARUC (June 21, 1913 – May 4, 2005) was a Filipino political figure and insurgent during the agrarian unrest of the 1930s until the end of the Cold War. He was the leader of the Hukbalahap or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon group between 1942 and 1950. :73 His involvement with the movement came after his initiation to the problems of agrarian Filipinos when he was a student in the early 1930s. During World War II
World War II
, Taruc led the Hukbalahap in guerrilla operations against the Japanese occupiers of the Philippines
Philippines
. He became aware of the unjust situation of tenant farmers and the poor in 1935, and decided to leave his haberdashery business to his wife so he could help, protect and serve the poor, maltreated and suffering peasants
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