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Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. The organization claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organization is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated. "[3] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961,[4] by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Constantin Noica
Constantin Noica
Constantin Noica
(Romanian: [konstanˈtin ˈnojka]; July 25 [O.S. July 12] 1909 – 4 December 1987) was a Romanian philosopher, essayist and poet. His preoccupations were throughout all philosophy, from epistemology, philosophy of culture, axiology and philosophic anthropology to ontology and logics, from the history of philosophy to systematic philosophy, from ancient to contemporary philosophy, from translating and interpretation to criticism and creation. In 2006 he was included to the list of the 100 Greatest Romanians of all time by a nationwide poll.Contents1 Biography 2 Philosophy 3 Books 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Noica was born in Vitănești, Teleorman County. He studied at the Dimitrie Cantemir and Spiru Haret lyceums, both in Bucharest. At Spiru Haret his math teacher was Dan Barbilian
Dan Barbilian
(pen name Ion Barbu, poet and mathematician)
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Campaign For Nuclear Disarmament
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
(CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK. CND began in November 1957 when a committee was formed, including Canon John Collins
Canon John Collins
as chairman, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
as president and Peggy Duff
Peggy Duff
as organising secretary. The committee organised CND's first public meeting at Methodist Central Hall, Westminster
Methodist Central Hall, Westminster
on 17 February 1958
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Public Trial
Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial. The term should not be confused with show trial.Contents1 United States 2 Canada 3 Soviet Union 4 See also 5 ReferencesUnited States[edit] The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution
establishes the right of the accused to a public trial. The right to a public trial is strictly enforced, but is not absolute. Trials may in exceptional cases be regulated. Closures are decided case-by-case by the judge evaluating a claimed danger to a substantial or legitimate public interest
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Ashton Jones
Ashton Bryan Jones (1896–1979) was an American Quaker
Quaker
minister active from the 1930s to 1970s as an advocate of Civil Rights for African Americans in the United States
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Agostinho Neto
António Agostinho Neto
Agostinho Neto
(17 September 1922 – 10 September 1979) served as the 1st President of Angola
President of Angola
(1975–1979), having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
(MPLA) in the war for independence (1961–1974). Until his death, he led the MPLA
MPLA
in the civil war (1975–2002). Known also for his literary activities, he is considered Angola's preeminent poet
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Patrick Duncan (anti-apartheid Activist)
Patrick Baker Duncan (1918–1967) was a political thinker and activist, whose three books promoted human rights in South Africa and expressed concern regarding the relationship of humans with the Earth. An anti-apartheid activist, Duncan was a supporter of universal suffrage who was harassed and imprisoned by the Apartheid
Apartheid
regime for his dissident activities.Contents1 Early life 2 Political career2.1 In South Africa 2.2 In exile3 Personal life 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Born 1918 in Johannesburg, was the son of Sir Patrick Duncan. Duncan was educated first in South Africa and later in England, at Winchester College and at Balliol College, Oxford
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Olga Ivinskaya
Olga Vsevolodovna Ivinskaya (Russian: Ольга Всеволодовна Ивинская; June 16, 1912, Tambov
Tambov
– September 8, 1995, Moscow) was a Russian poet and writer. She was friend and lover of Nobel Prize-winning writer Boris Pasternak
Boris Pasternak
during the last 13 years of his life and the inspiration for the character of Lara in his novel Doctor Zhivago (1957).Contents1 Early life 2 Relationship with Pasternak 3 Final years 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Ivinskaya, of German-Polish descent, was born in Tambov
Tambov
to a provincial high school teacher. In 1915, the family moved to Moscow. After graduating from the Editorial Workers Institute in Moscow
Moscow
in 1936, she worked as an editor at various literary magazines. She was an admirer of Pasternak since her adolescence, attending literary gatherings to listen to his poetry
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Luis Taruc
Luis Taruc
Luis Taruc
(June 21, 1913 – May 4, 2005) was a Filipino political figure and insurgent during the agrarian unrest of the 1930s until the end of the Cold War. He was the leader of the Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon group between 1942 and 1950.[1]:73 His involvement with the movement came after his initiation to the problems of agrarian Filipinos when he was a student in the early 1930s. During World War II, Taruc led the Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
in guerrilla operations against the Japanese occupiers of the Philippines. He became aware of the unjust situation of tenant farmers and the poor in 1935, and decided to leave his haberdashery business to his wife so he could help, protect and serve the poor, maltreated and suffering peasants
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Hu Feng
Hu Feng
Hu Feng
(simplified Chinese: 胡风; traditional Chinese: 胡風; pinyin: Hú Fēng) (1902–1985) was a Chinese writer and literary and art theorist. He came from Qichun
Qichun
in the province of Hubei. In 1929, he went to study in Japan. In 1933, he was expelled from Japan and he joined the League of Left-Wing Writers
League of Left-Wing Writers
in Shanghai. He was friends with Lu Xun. It was 1937, after the Second Sino-Japanese War, the journal Qiyue 七月 ("July") out. Further stations of his life were Wuhan
Wuhan
and Chongqing. He criticized the way Mao Zedong's notions of realism in art and literature had become overly politicized, losing touch with the everyday lives of the proletarian peasants whom art and literature would serve in a Marxist
Marxist
organization of Chinese society.[1] Hu thus became himself a target of criticism
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Estado Novo (Portugal)
The Estado Novo (Portuguese pronunciation: [(ɨ)ʃˈtadu, -ðu ˈnovu], "New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which some considered fascist.[1] It evolved from the Ditadura Nacional formed after the coup d'état of 28 May 1926 against the democratic and unstable First Republic. Together, the Ditadura Nacional and Estado Novo are recognized as the Second Portuguese Republic. The Estado Novo, greatly inspired by conservative and authoritarian ideologies, was developed by António de Oliveira Salazar, President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, when he fell ill and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano. Opposed to communism, socialism, anarchism, liberalism and anti-colonialism,[a] the regime was corporatist, conservative, and nationalist in nature, defending Portugal as Catholic
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Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. It has been described as a broad church, bringing together an alliance of social democratic, democratic socialist and trade unionist outlooks.[9] The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights. Labour is a full member of the Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists
and Progressive Alliance, and holds observer status in the Socialist
Socialist
International. As of 2017, the party is considered the "largest party in Western Europe" in terms of party membership, with more than half-a-million members.[10] The Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century
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Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party,[11] is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the governing party, having been so since the 2010 general election, where a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats was formed. In 2015, the Conservatives led by David Cameron won a surprise majority and formed the first Conservative majority government since 1992.[12] However, the 2017 snap election on Thursday 8 June resulted in a hung parliament, and the party lost its parliamentary majority.[13] It is reliant on the support of a Northern Irish political party, the Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
(DUP), in order to command a majority in the House of Commons through a confidence-and-supply deal. The party leader, Theresa May,[14] has served as both Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister since 13 July 2016
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Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom—with the opposing Conservative Party—in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.[2] The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the nineteenth century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1906 with a landslide victory. It passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Liberal H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
was Prime Minister from 1908 to 1916, followed by David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
from 1916 to 1922
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Communist World
The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union. Following World War II, there were 19 communist states, and after the fall of the Soviet Union, only five socialist states remained: China, North Korea, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. Along with "First World" and "Third World", the term was used to divide the states of Earth into three broad categories. The concept of "Second World" was a construct of the Cold War and the term is still largely used to describe former communist countries that are between poverty and prosperity, many of which are now capitalist states
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