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Amino Acid
Amino acids
Amino acids
are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.)
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SECIS Element
In biology, the SECIS element
SECIS element
(SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is an RNA
RNA
element around 60 nucleotides in length that adopts a stem-loop structure.[1] This structural motif (pattern of nucleotides) directs the cell to translate UGA codons as selenocysteines. (UGA is normally a stop codon.) SECIS elements are thus a fundamental aspect of messenger RNAs encoding selenoproteins, proteins that include one or more selenocysteine residues. In bacteria the SECIS element
SECIS element
appears soon after the UGA codon it affects. In archaea and eukaryotes, it occurs in the 3' UTR
3' UTR
of an mRNA, and can cause multiple UGA codons within the m RNA
RNA
to code for selenocysteine
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Chemical Polarity
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. A polar molecule with two or more polar bonds must have a geometry which is asymmetric in at least one direction, so that the bond dipoles do not cancel each other. Polar molecules interact through dipole–dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds
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Archea
Paleoarchean or perhaps Eoarchean – recentHalobacterium sp. strain NRC-1, each cell about 5 μm longScientific classification Domain: Archaea Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990[1]Kingdoms[3] and phyla[4]"Euryarchaeota" Woese et al. 1990"Methanopyri" Garrity and Holt 2002 "Methanococci" Boone 2002 "Eurythermea" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2] "Neobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2]"DPANN""ARMAN""Micrarchaeota" Baker et al. 2010 "Parvarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013"Aenigmarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Diapherotrites" Rinke et al. 2013 "Nanoarchaeota" Huber et al. 2002 "Nanohaloarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Pacearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015 "Woesearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015"Proteoarchaeota" Petitjean et al. 2014"TACK""Aigarchaeota" Nunoura et al. 2011 "Bathyarchaeota" Meng et al. 2014 Crenarchaeota Garrity & Holt 2002 "Geoarchaeota" Kozubal et al. 2013 "Korarchaeota" Barns et al. 1996 Thaumarchaeota Brochier-Armanet et al
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Isomer
An isomer (/ˈaɪsəmər/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure. Isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms.[1][2] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Muscle
Muscle
Muscle
is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle
Muscle
cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis. Muscle
Muscle
tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis. There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac, and smooth. Muscle
Muscle
action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary
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Human Brain
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head. The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is an outer layer of grey matter, covering the core of white matter. The cortex is split into the neocortex and the much smaller allocortex. The neocortex is made up of six neuronal layers, while the allocortex has three or four. Each hemisphere is conventionally divided into four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes
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Open-chain Compound
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.[1] An open-chain compound having no side chains is called a straight-chain compound (also spelled as straight chain compound).[2][3] Many of the simple molecules of organic chemistry, such as the alkanes and alkenes, have both linear and ring isomers, that is, both acyclic and cyclic, with the latter often classified as aromatic. For those with 4 or more carbons, the linear forms can have straight-chain or branched-chain isomers. The lowercase prefix n- denotes the straight-chain isomer; for example, n-butane is straight-chain butane, whereas i-butane is isobutane. Cycloalkanes are isomers of alkenes, not of alkanes, because the ring's closure involves a C=C bond
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Aliphatic
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (/ˌælɪˈfætɪk/; G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds. Aliphatics can be cyclic, but only aromatic compounds contain an especially stable ring of atoms, such as benzene.[1] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, like hexane, or unsaturated, like hexene and hexyne. Open-chain compounds (whether straight or branched) contain no rings of any type, and are thus aliphatic.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties 3 Examples of aliphatic compounds / non-aromatic 4 ReferencesStructure[edit] Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, joined by single bonds (alkanes), or unsaturated, with double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes)
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Functional Group
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.[1][2] This allows for systematic prediction of chemical reactions and behavior of chemical compounds and design of chemical syntheses. Furthermore, the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group interconversion is one of the basic types of transformations. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. Functional groups can also be charged, e.g. in carboxylate salts (–COO−), which turns the molecule into a polyatomic ion or a complex ion
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