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American Horse
American Horse
American Horse
(Oglala Lakota: Wašíčuŋ Tȟašúŋke in Standard Lakota Orthography) (a/k/a " American Horse
American Horse
the Younger") (1840 – December 16, 1908) was an Oglala Lakota
Oglala Lakota
chief, statesman, educator and historian. American Horse
American Horse
is notable in American history as a U.S. Army Indian Scout and a progressive Oglala Lakota
Oglala Lakota
leader who promoted friendly associations with whites and education for his people. American Horse
American Horse
opposed Crazy Horse during the Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876-1877 and the Ghost Dance
Ghost Dance
Movement of 1890, and was a Lakota delegate to Washington
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Golden Jubilee Of Queen Victoria
The Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee
of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June 1837. It was celebrated with a banquet to which 50 European kings and princes were invited.[1] History[edit]Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria. Francis John Williamson, 1887. Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, UKOn 20 June 1887 the Queen had breakfast outdoors under the trees at Frogmore, where Prince Albert had been buried. She then travelled by train from Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
to Paddington
Paddington
then to Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
for a royal banquet that evening. Fifty foreign kings and princes, along with the governing heads of Britain's overseas colonies and dominions, attended. She wrote in her diary:[2]Had a large family dinner
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Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
(also referred to as the Bozeman War or the Powder River War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho
Arapaho
on one side and the United States
United States
in Wyoming
Wyoming
and Montana
Montana
territories from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the western Powder River Country
Powder River Country
in present north-central Wyoming. This grassland, rich in buffalo, was traditionally Crow Indian land, but the Lakota had recently taken control.[3] The Crow tribe
Crow tribe
held the treaty right to the disputed area, according to the major agreement reached at Fort Laramie
Fort Laramie
in 1851
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Ft. Laramie, Wyoming
Fort Laramie is a town in Goshen County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 230 at the 2010 census. The town is named after historic Fort Laramie, an important stop on the Oregon, California and Mormon trails, as well as a staging point for various military excursions and treaty signings
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Lakota People
The Lakota, natively known as the Lakȟóta (pronounced [laˈkˣota]), also known as Teton, (from Thítȟuŋwaŋ)[3] and Teton Sioux. They speak the Lakota language, the westernmost of the three closely related languages that belong to the Siouan language
Siouan language
family, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota
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Valentine McGillycuddy
Valentine Trant McGillycuddy (1849–1939) was a surgeon who served with expeditions and United States
United States
military forces in the West. He was considered controversial for his efforts to build a sustainable relationship between the United States
United States
and Native American peoples.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Career1.2.1 Relations with Indians 1.2.2 Other government appointments1.3 Later life2 Further reading 3 External links3.1 Books based on McGillycuddy's life 3.2 Museum and archival collections4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Valentine Trant O'Connell McGillycuddy was born on February 14, 1849 in Racine, Wisconsin.[1] When he was 13, his family moved to Detroit.[2] He graduated from the Detroit
Detroit
Medical School at 20 years of age. He began working as a doctor at the Wayne Country Insane Asylum[3] and practiced medicine for one year
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Richard Henry Pratt
Richard Henry Pratt
Richard Henry Pratt
(December 6, 1840 – March 15, 1924)[1] is best known as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Carlisle Indian Industrial School
at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He is associated with the first recorded use of the word "racism," which he used in 1902 to criticize against racial segregation. Pratt is also known for using the phrase "kill the Indian..
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Black Hills
The Black Hills
Black Hills
(Lakota: Ȟe Sápa; Cheyenne: Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; Hidatsa: awaxaawi shiibisha[1]) are a small and isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains
Great Plains
of North America
North America
in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, United States.[2] Black Elk
Black Elk
Peak (formerly known as Harney Peak), which rises to 7,244 feet (2,208 m), is the range's highest summit.[3] The Black Hills encompass the Black Hills
Black Hills
National Forest. The name "Black Hills" is a translation of the Lakota Pahá Sápa. The hills were so-called because of their dark appearance from a distance, as they were covered in trees.[4] Native Americans have a long history in the Black Hills
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William J. Fetterman
American Civil War Indian WarsRed Cloud's WarWilliam Judd Fetterman (1833 – December 21, 1866) was an officer in the United States
United States
Army during the American Civil War
American Civil War
and the subsequent Red Cloud's War
Red Cloud's War
on the Great Plains. Fetterman and his command of 80 men were killed in the Fetterman Fight.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Fetterman was probably born in New London, Connecticut, although this is uncertain. His father was a career Army officer of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) descent. Military career[edit] Fetterman enlisted in the Union Army
Union Army
on May 14, 1861, in Delaware, and was promptly commissioned a first lieutenant
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Charles A. Eastman
Charles Alexander Eastman (born Hakadah and later named Ohíye S’a; February 19, 1858 – January 8, 1939) was a Santee Dakota
Santee Dakota
physician educated at Boston University, writer, national lecturer, and reformer. In the early 20th century, he was "one of the most prolific authors and speakers on Sioux ethnohistory and American Indian affairs."[1] Eastman was of Santee Dakota, English and French ancestry. After working as a physician on reservations in South Dakota, he became increasingly active in politics and issues on Native American rights, he worked to improve the lives of youths, and founded thirty-two Native American chapters of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). He also helped found the Boy Scouts of America
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Gertrude Käsebier
Gertrude Käsebier
Gertrude Käsebier
(May 18, 1852 – October 12, 1934) was one of the most influential American photographers of the early 20th century. She was known for her images of motherhood, her portraits of Native Americans and her promotion of photography as a career for women.Contents1 Life1.1 Early life (1852–1873) 1.2 Becoming a photographer (1874–1897) 1.3 Gertrude Käsebier
Gertrude Käsebier
and the Sioux 1.4 Height of her career (1898–1909) 1.5 Professional independence (1910–1934)2 Gallery 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Early life (1852–1873)[edit] Käsebier was born Gertrude Stanton on 18 May 1852 in Fort Des Moines (now Des Moines). Her father, John W
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United States Indian Police
The United States Indian Police (USIP) were organized in 1880 by John Q. Tufts the Indian Commissioner in Muskogee, Indian Territory, to police the Five Civilized Tribes. Their mission is to "provide justice services and technical assistance to federally recognized Indian tribes."[1] The USIP, after its founding in 1880, recruited many of their police officers from the ranks of the existing Indian Lighthorsemen. Unlike the Lighthorse who were under the direction of the individual tribe, the USIP was under the direction of the Indian agent assigned to the Union Agency. Many of the US Indian police officers were given Deputy U.S
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Yale
Yale University
Yale University
is an American private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States
United States
and one of the nine Colonial Colleges
Colonial Colleges
chartered before the American Revolution.[6] Chartered by Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy in Saybrook Colony
Saybrook Colony
to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven
New Haven
in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College
Yale College
in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale
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U.S. 4th Cavalry Regiment
The 4th Cavalry
Cavalry
Regiment
Regiment
is a United States
United States
Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage is traced back to the mid-19th century. It was one of the most effective units of the Army against American Indians on the Texas
Texas
frontier. Today, the regiment exists as separate squadrons within the U.S. Army. The 1st Squadron of the 4th Cavalry's official nickname is "Quarterhorse", which alludes to its 1/4 Cav designation. The 3rd Squadron of the 4th Cavalry's official nickname is "Raiders". Today, the "1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry", "2nd Squadron, 4th Cavalry", "4th Squadron, 4th Cavalry", and "6th Squadron, 4th Cavalry" are parts of the 1st Infantry Division, while the "3rd Squadron, 4th Cavalry" serves as part of the 25th Infantry Division
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Great Sioux War Of 1876
The Great Sioux
Sioux
War of 1876, also known as the Black Hills
Black Hills
War, was a series of battles and negotiations which occurred between 1876 and 1877 between the Lakota, Sioux, and Northern Cheyenne
Cheyenne
and the government of the United States. The cause of the war was the desire of the U.S. government to obtain ownership of the Black Hills. Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills, settlers began to encroach onto Native American lands, and the Sioux
Sioux
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
refused to cede ownership to the U.S. Traditionally, the United States
United States
military and historians place the Lakota at the center of the story, especially given their numbers, but some Indians believe the Cheyenne
Cheyenne
were the primary target of the U.S
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Big Mouth (chief)
Big Mouth (Lakota: Itȟáŋka) (c. 1822—October 29, 1869) was an Oglala-born leader of the Brulé Lakota, regarded by the Brulé for his bravery and aggressive military leadership. He was one of the signers of the second Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868[1] and remained a bitter opponent of further American settlement, ridiculing Spotted Tail and other Sioux leaders upon their return from a mission to Washington, D.C.. He was the first son of Old Chief Smoke (1774–1864) and his third wife, Burnt Her Woman. His twin brother was Blue Horse. One of the principal leaders at the Whetstone Indian Agency, located along the Missouri River, where most of the Brulé and Oglala bands had gathered, Big Mouth gained increasing support for his stance among members of the tribe. He criticized what he described as Spotted Tail's reversal of Sioux policy, saying Spotted Tail had been entertained by American politicians and given a personal tour through the major cities of the east coast
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