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Amatoxin
Amatoxin
Amatoxin
is the collective name of a subgroup of at least eight related toxic compounds found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably the death cap ( Amanita
Amanita
phalloides) and several other members of the genus Amanita, as well as some Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota
Lepiota
mushroom species. Amatoxins are lethal in even small doses
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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Saccharomyces
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae (/ˌsɛrɪˈvɪsiiː/)[1] is a species of yeast. It has been instrumental to winemaking, baking, and brewing since ancient times. It is believed to have been originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 μm in diameter
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Protein Biosynthesis
Protein
Protein
synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein
Protein
biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA
DNA
template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA). The cistron DNA
DNA
is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a polypeptide chain
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Snrna
Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The length of an average snRNA is approximately 150 nucleotides. They are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or RNA polymerase III.[1] Their primary function is in the processing of pre-messenger RNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. They have also been shown to aid in the regulation of transcription factors (7SK RNA) or RNA polymerase II (B2 RNA), and maintaining the telomeres. snRNA are always associated with a set of specific proteins, and the complexes are referred to as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP, often pronounced "snurps"). Each snRNP particle is composed of a snRNA component and several snRNP-specific proteins (including Sm proteins, a family of nuclear proteins)
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MicroRNA
A micro RNA
RNA
(abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA
RNA
molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing
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Messenger RNA
Messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is a large family of RNA
RNA
molecules that convey genetic information from DNA
DNA
to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript m RNA
RNA
(known as pre-mRNA) into processed, mature mRNA. This mature m RNA
RNA
is then translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology. As in DNA, m RNA
RNA
genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis
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Hepatitis
Hepatitis
Hepatitis
is inflammation of the liver tissue.[3] Some people have no symptoms whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, or diarrhea.[1][2] Hepatitis
Hepatitis
may be temporary (acute) or long term (chron
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Necrosis
Necrosis
Necrosis
(from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.[1] Necrosis
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Hepatic Steatosis
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell). Despite having multiple causes, fatty liver can be considered a single disease that occurs worldwide in those with excessive alcohol intake and the obese (with or without effects of insulin resistance). The condition is also associated with other diseases that influence fat metabolism.[1] When this process of fat metabolism is disrupted, the fat can accumulate in the liver in excessive amounts, thus resulting in a fatty liver.[2] It is difficult to distinguish alcoholic FLD, which is part of alcoholic liver disease, from nonalcoholic FLD (NAFLD), and both show microvesicular and macrovesicular fatty changes at different stages. The accumulation of fat in alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatosis may also be accompanied by a progressive inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), called steatohepatitis
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Nephropathy
Kidney
Kidney
disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, is damage to or disease of a kidney. Nephritis
Nephritis
is inflammatory kidney disease. It can be diagnosed by blood testings. Nephrosis
Nephrosis
is noninflammatory kidney disease. Kidney
Kidney
disease usually causes kidney failure to some degree, with the amount depending on the type of disease. In precise usage, disease denotes the structural and causal disease entity[clarification needed] whereas failure denotes the impaired kidney function. In common usage these meanings overlap; for example, the terms chronic kidney disease and chronic renal failure are usually considered synonymous. Acute kidney disease has often been called acute renal failure, although nephrologists now often tend to call it acute kidney injury
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Hepatorenal Syndrome
Hepatorenal syndrome
Hepatorenal syndrome
(often abbreviated HRS) is a life-threatening medical condition that consists of rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure. HRS is usually fatal unless a liver transplant is performed, although various treatments, such as dialysis, can prevent advancement of the condition. HRS can affect individuals with cirrhosis, severe alcoholic hepatitis, or liver failure, and usually occurs when liver function deteriorates rapidly because of a sudden insult such as an infection, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, or overuse of diuretic medications. HRS is a relatively common complication of cirrhosis, occurring in 18% of people within one year of their diagnosis, and in 39% within five years of their diagnosis. Deteriorating liver function is believed to cause changes in the circulation that supplies the intestines, altering blood flow and blood vessel tone in the kidneys
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Penicillin
Penicillin
Penicillin
(PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use)
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Silibinin
Silibinin
Silibinin
(INN), also known as silybin (both from Silybum, the generic name of the plant from which it is extracted), is the major active constituent of silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, containing a mixture of flavonolignans consisting of silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin, and others. Silibinin
Silibinin
itself is a mixture of two diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B, in approximately equimolar ratio.[1] The mixture exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, particularly in the liver, and there is some clinical evidence for the use of silibinin as a supportive element in alcoholic and child grade 'A' liver cirrhosis.[2]Contents1 Pharmacology 2 Toxicity 3 Medical uses 4 Potential medical uses 5 Biotechnology 6 References 7 External linksPharmacology[edit] Poor water solubility and bioavailability of silymarin led to the development of enhanced formulations
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