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Alveolar Cell
Alveolar cells, or pneumocytes, are cells lining the alveoli of the lungs. Two types of alveolar cell exist: type I alveolar cells and type II alveolar cells.Contents1 Types1.1 Type I alveolar cells 1.2 Type II alveolar cells2 Development 3 Function 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTypes[edit] Type I alveolar cells[edit] Type I alveolar cells are squamous (giving more surface area to each cell) and cover approximately 90–95% of the alveolar surface. Type I cells are involved in the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. These cells are extremely thin (sometimes only 25 nm) – the electron microscope was needed to prove that all alveoli are covered with an epithelial lining
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Gene
A gene is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Pinocytosis
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell. These pinocytotic vesicles subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze (break down) the particles. This process requires energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical compound mostly used as energy in the majority of animal cells. Pinocytosis
Pinocytosis
is used primarily for clearing extracellular fluids (ECF) and as part of immune surveillance [1]. In contrast to phagocytosis, it generates very small amounts of ATP from the wastes of alternative substances such as lipids (fat). Unlike receptor-mediated endocytosis, pinocytosis is nonspecific in the substances that it transports
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University Of Kansas
The University
University
of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas. The main campus in Lawrence, one of the largest college towns in Kansas,[6] is on Mount Oread, the highest elevation in Lawrence. Two branch campuses are in the Kansas
Kansas
City metropolitan area: the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, Kansas, and the university's medical school and hospital in Kansas
Kansas
City, Kansas. There are also educational and research sites in Parsons, Kansas, Topeka, Kansas, Garden City, Kansas, Hays, Kansas, and Leavenworth, Kansas, and branches of the medical school in Wichita, Kansas
Kansas
and Salina, Kansas
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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List Of Human Cell Types Derived From The Germ Layers
This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.Contents1 Cells derived from ectoderm1.1 Surface ectoderm1.1.1 Skin 1.1.2 Anterior pituitary1.2 Neural crest1.2.1 Peripheral nervous system 1.2.2 Neuroendocrine system 1.2.3 Skin 1.2.4 Teeth 1.2.5 Eyes1.3 Neural tube1.3.1 Central nervous system 1.3.2 Ependyma 1.3.3 Pineal gland2 Cells derived from mesoderm2.1 Paraxial mesoderm2.1.1 Mesenchymal stem cell2.1.1.1 Osteochondroprogenitor cell 2.1.1.2 Myofibroblast2.1.2 Other2.2 Intermediate mesoderm2.2.1 Renal stem cell 2.2.2 Reproductive system2.3 Lateral plate mesoderm/hemangioblast2.3.1 Hematopoietic stem cell 2.3.2 Circulatory system3 Cells derived from endoderm3.1 Foregut3.1.1 Respiratory system 3.1.2 Digestive3.1.2.1 Stomach 3.1.2.2 Intestine 3.1.2.3 Liver 3.1.2.4 Gallbladder
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Lung Cancer
Lung
Lung
cancer, also known as lung carcinoma,[7] is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.[10] This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.[11] Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.[1] The vast majority (85%) of cases of
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MUC1
1SM3, 2ACMIdentifiersAliases MUC1, ADMCKD, ADMCKD1, CA 15-3, CD227, EMA, H23AG, KL-6, MAM6, MCD, MCKD, MCKD1, MUC-1, MUC-1/SEC, MUC-1/X, MUC1/ZD, PEM, PEMT, PUM, mucin 1, cell surface associatedExternal IDs HomoloGene: 136477 GeneCards: MUC1 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Phospholipid
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers because of their amphiphilic characteristic. The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group. The two components are joined together by a glycerol molecule. The phosphate groups can be modified with simple organic molecules such as choline. The first phospholipid identified in 1847 as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist and pharmacist, Theodore Nicolas Gobley. Biological membranes in eukaryotes also contain another class of lipid, sterol, interspersed among the phospholipids and together they provide membrane fluidity and mechanical strength
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Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
(DPPtdCho) is a phospholipid (and a lecithin) consisting of two palmitic acids attached of a phosphatidylcholine head-group and is the major constituent of many pulmonary surfactants. It is zwitterionic by virtue of having a negative charge on the phosphate group and a positive charge on the quaternary ammonium group. It is thought that a lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) acyltransferase may play a critical role in its synthesis
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Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Infant
Infant
respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS),[1] respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD),[2] and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. It can also be a consequence of neonatal infection.[3][4] It can also result from a genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins. IRDS affects about 1% of newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants.[5] The incidence decreases with advancing gestational age, from about 50% in babies born at 26–28 weeks, to about 25% at 30–31 weeks
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Pulmonary Surfactant
Pulmonary surfactant
Pulmonary surfactant
is a surface-active lipoprotein complex (phospholipoprotein) formed by type II alveolar cells. The proteins and lipids that make up the surfactant have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
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Toxin
A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).[3] Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors
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Desmosome
A desmosome (/ˈdɛzməˌsoʊm/;[1][2] "binding body"), also known as a macula adhaerens (plural: maculae adhaerentes) ( Latin
Latin
for adhering spot), is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion. A type of junctional complex, they are localized spot-like adhesions randomly arranged on the lateral sides of plasma membranes. The desmosome was first discovered by Giulio Bizzozero, an Italian pathologist.[3] He named these "dense nodules" the "nodes of Bizzozero"
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Mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.[1] Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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