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Alphonse Juin
Zaian War First World War:First Battle of the Marne First Battle of Champagne Nivelle OffensiveRif War Second World War:Battle of France Tunisia Campaign Italian CampaignAwardsMarshal of France Grand Croix de la Légion d'honneur Médaille militaire Croix de guerre(more, see below)Alphonse Pierre Juin (French pronunciation: ​[alfɔ̃s ʒɥɛ̃]; 16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France. A graduate of the Saint-Cyr class of 1912, he served in Morocco
Morocco
in 1914 in command of native troops. Upon the outbreak of the First World War, he was sent to the Western Front in France, where he was gravely wounded in 1915. As a result of this wound, he lost the use of his right arm. After the war, he attended the École Supérieure de Guerre. He chose to serve in North Africa again
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Brigade General
Brigadier
Brigadier
general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6). In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is often considered not to be a general-officer rank, but is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank. The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field
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Fès
Fez
Fez
(Arabic: فاس‎ Fas, Berber languages: ⴼⴰⵙ Fas, French: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco
Morocco
and the capital of the Fès-Meknès
Fès-Meknès
administrative region. It is the second largest city of Morocco
Morocco
after Casablanca,[4] with a population of 1.1 million (2014). Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez
Fez
is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions; 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier
Tangier
to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 169 km (105 mi) from Rabat
Rabat
to the west, and 387 km (240 mi) from Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to the southwest which leads to the Trans-Saharan trade
Trans-Saharan trade
route
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Agadir Crisis
Treaty of Fez:France establishes a full protectorate over MoroccoBelligerents German Empire United Kingdom  French Third Republic Kingdom of Spainv t eScramble for AfricaBoer War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad
Chad
(1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (1898) South Africa (1899) Namibia (1904) Tanganyika (1905)
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Western Front (World War I)
Decisive Entente victoryArmistice of Compiègne, end of World War I Central Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified, fall of the German EmpireBelligerentsEntente Powers: France French colonial empire British Empire Australia  Bermuda Canada  India  Newfoundland New Zealand  Southern Rhodesia  South Africa  United Kingdom  United States
United States
(from 1917)  Belgium  Italy (from 1915) Portugal
Portugal
(from 1916) Russian Empire (1916–17) Siam
Siam
(from 1918) Brazil
Brazil
(from 1918)Central Powers:  German Empire  Austria-HungaryCommanders and leaders Joseph Joffre Robert Nivelle Philippe Pétain Ferdinand Foch John French Douglas Haig John J
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French Algeria
French Algeria
Algeria
(French: Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterward;[1] unofficially Algérie française,[2][3] Arabic: الجزائر الفرنسية‎, Al-Jaza'ir al-Fransiyah) began in 1827[4] with the blockade of Algiers
Algiers
by the French navy and lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. From 1848 until independence, the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria
Algeria
was administered as an integral part of France. The vast arid interior of Algeria, like the rest of French North Africa, was never considered part of France. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria
Algeria
became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, known as colons and later, as pieds-noirs. However, indigenous Muslims
Muslims
remained a majority of the territory's population throughout its history
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Siege Of Lille (1940)
The Siege of Lille or Lille Pocket was a Second World War battle fought during the Battle of France. It took place from 28 to 31 May 1940, in the vicinity of Lille during the Battle of France. It involved about 40,000 men of the French IV Corps and V Corps, part of the First Army (General René Prioux), after the III Corps managed to retreat to the Lys river with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) divisions nearby. The surrounded portion of the army fought seven German divisions, including three armoured divisions, that were attempting to cut off and destroy the Allied armies in the Battle of Dunkirk
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Prisoner Of War
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict
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Sergeant
Sergeant
Sergeant
(abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces. The alternate spelling, 'serjeant', is used in The Rifles
The Rifles
and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry. Its origin is the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term sergent. The term "sergeant" refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer immediately below a lieutenant or, in the UK below an inspector.[1][2] In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad (or section). In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command
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Bursary
A bursary is a monetary award made by an institution to individuals or groups of people who cannot afford to pay full fees. In return for the bursary the individual is usually obligated to be employed at the institution for the duration as the bursary. According to The Good Schools Guide, a bursary is "usually for helping out the impoverished but deserving and those fallen on hard times".[1] According to The Hobsons UK Boarding Schools Guide,[2] numerous independent schools have bursary capability, namely grants from the school to help pay education fees. These are usually awarded after a "means test" of family income and are not necessarily dependent on examination performance, although some account of academic ability will be taken
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Winter Line
The Winter Line
Winter Line
was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II
World War II
by Organisation Todt
Organisation Todt
and commanded by Albert Kesselring. The series of 3 lines was designed to defend a western section of Italy, focused around the town of Monte Cassino, through which ran the important Highway 6 which led uninterrupted to Rome. The primary Gustav Line ran across Italy
Italy
from just north of where the Garigliano River
Garigliano River
flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
in the west, through the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
to the mouth of the Sangro
Sangro
River on the Adriatic coast in the east
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San Francisco Conference
The United Nations
United Nations
Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, California. At this convention, the delegates reviewed and rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements of the previous year.[1] The convention resulted in the creation of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter, which was opened for signature on 26 June, the last day of the conference. The conference was held at various locations, primarily the War Memorial Opera House, with the Charter being signed on 26 June at the Herbst Theatre in Civic Center. The conference was chaired by U.S
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NATO
"A mind unfettered in deliberation" "L'esprit libre dans la consultation"[2]Formation 4 April 1949; 69 years ago (1949-04-04)Type Military allianceHeadquarters Brussels, BelgiumMembership29 states Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United StatesOfficial languageEnglish French[3]Secretary GeneralJens StoltenbergChairman of the NATO
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Corporal
Corporal
Corporal
is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-4. However, there are often differences in how each nation (or service in each nation) employs corporals. Some militaries don't have corporals, but may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and usually only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant
Sergeant
and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad
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Zouave
The Zouaves (French pronunciation: ​[zwav]) were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army
French Army
serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa, as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them. The zouaves, along with the indigenous Tirailleurs
Tirailleurs
Algeriens, were among the most decorated units of the French Army. It was initially intended in 1830 that the zouaves be a regiment of Berber volunteers from the Zwawa group of tribes in Algeria—thus the French term zouave—who had gained a martial reputation fighting for local rulers under the Ottoman Empire. The regiment was to consist of sixteen hundred Zwawa Berbers, French NCOs and French officers
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