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Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
(See also bacterial taxonomy).[3] Its members are highly diverse and possess few commonalities, but nevertheless share a common ancestor. Like all Proteobacteria, its members are Gram-negative
Gram-negative
and some of its intracellular parasitic members lack peptidoglycan and are consequently gram variable.[3][4]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Evolution and genomics 3 Phylogeny 4 Natural genetic transformation 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The Alphaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
is a diverse taxon and comprises several phototrophic genera, several genera metabolising C1-compounds (e.g., Methylobacterium spp.), symbionts of plants (e.g., Rhizobium
Rhizobium
spp.), endosymbionts of arthropods (Wolbachia) and intracellular pathogens (e.g
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Public Library Of Science
PLOS
PLOS
(for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. It launched its first journal, PLOS
PLOS
Biology, in October 2003 and publishes seven journals, as of October 2015[update].[1][2] The organization is based in San Francisco, California, and has a European editorial office in Cambridge, England
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Taxonomy (biology)
In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species
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Phototroph
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός = light, τροϕή = nourishment) are the organisms that carry out photon capture to acquire energy. They use the energy from light to carry out various cellular metabolic processes. It is a common misconception that phototrophs are obligatorily photosynthetic. Many, but not all, phototrophs often photosynthesize: they anabolically convert carbon dioxide into organic material to be utilized structurally, functionally, or as a source for later catabolic processes (e.g. in the form of starches, sugars and fats). All phototrophs either use electron transport chains or direct proton pumping to establish an electro-chemical gradient which is utilized by ATP synthase, to provide the molecular energy currency for the cell. Phototrophs can be either autotrophs or heterotrophs
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Subclass (biology)
In biological classification, class (Latin: classis) is:a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes)Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia.The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed
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Bacterial Taxonomy
Bacterial taxonomy
Bacterial taxonomy
is the taxonomy, i.e. the rank-based classification, of bacteria. In the scientific classification established by Carl Linnaeus,[1] each species has to be assigned to a genus (binary nomenclature), which in turn is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks (family, suborder, order, subclass, class, division/phyla, kingdom and domain)
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Phylum
A high level taxonomic rank for organisms sharing a similar body plan For other uses, see Phyla. The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. A kingdom contains one or more phyla. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Class (biology)
In biological classification, class (Latin: classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.[a] Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. Contents1 Definition 2 Hierarchy of ranks below and above the level of class 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] The class as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name (and not just called a top-level genus (genus summum)) was first introduced by the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in his classification of plants that appeared in his Eléments de botanique, 1694. Insofar as a general definition of a class is available, it has historically been conceived as embracing taxa that combine a distinct grade of organization -- i.e
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Acetobacteraceae
Acetobacter Acidicaldus Acidiphilium Acidisoma Acidisphaera Acidocella Acidomonas Asaia Belnapia Craurococcus Endobacter Gluconacetobacter Gluconobacter Granulibacter Komagataeibacter Kozakia Muricoccus Neoasaia Neokomagataea Oleomonas Paracraurococcus Rhodopila Rhodovarius Roseococcus Roseomonas Rubritepida Saccharibacter Stella (genus) Swaminathania Tanticharoenia Teichococcus Zavarzinia Acetobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative bacteria. The type genus is Acetobacter.[1] Ten genera from Acetobacteraceae make up the acetic acid bacteria.[2] History[edit] Acetobacteraceae was proposed as a family for Acetobacter and Gluconobacter based on rRNA and DNA–DNA hybridization comparisons in 1980.[3] External links[edit] Acetobacteraceae page on the List of Prokaryotic Names with StandingReferences[edit]^ "Family Acetobacteraceae". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing (LPSN)
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Gram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.[1] They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth
Earth
that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis
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Endosymbiotic Theory
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
in 1967. It holds that the organelles distinguishing eukaryote cells evolved through symbiosis of individual single-celled prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea). The theory holds that mitochondria, plastids such as chloroplasts, and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells represent formerly free-living prokaryotes taken one inside the other in endosymbiosis, around 1.5 billion years ago
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Rhizobiaceae
The Rhizobiaceae is a family of proteobacteria comprising multiple subgroups that enhance and hinder plant development.[4] Some bacteria found in the family are used for plant nutrition and collectively make up the rhizobia. Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to induce crown galls or hairy roots found on the stem.[4] The family has been of an interest to scientists for centuries in their ability to associate with plants and modify plant development.[4] The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative
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Wolbachia
Wolbachia
Wolbachia
is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
which infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, but also some nematodes. It is one of the world's most common parasitic microbes and is possibly the most common reproductive parasite in the biosphere. Its interactions with its hosts are often complex, and in some cases have evolved to be mutualistic rather than parasitic. Some host species cannot reproduce, or even survive, without Wolbachia infection
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Rhizobium
See text. Rhizobium
Rhizobium
is a genus of Gram-negative
Gram-negative
soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium
Rhizobium
species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of legumes and Parasponia. The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules, where they convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and then provide organic nitrogenous compounds such as glutamine or ureides to the plant. The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with organic compounds made by photosynthesis.[2] This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the Rhizobium
Rhizobium
genus is a typical example.Contents1 History 2 Research 3 Species 4 Phylogeny 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Beijerinck in the Netherlands
Netherlands
was the first to isolate and cultivate a microorganism from the nodules of legumes in 1888
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Bartonellaceae
Bartonella
Bartonella
is a genus of Gram-negative
Gram-negative
bacteria. It is the only genus in the family Bartonellaceae.[2][3] Facultative intracellular parasites, Bartonella
Bartonella
species can infect healthy people, but are considered especially important as opportunistic pathogens.[4] Bartonella
Bartonella
species are transmitted by vectors such as ticks, fleas, sand flies, and mosquitoes
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Coprothermobacterota[2] Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[3] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ (listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria
Bacteria
were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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