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Alphabet Of Human Thought
The ALPHABET OF HUMAN THOUGHT is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
that provides a universal way to represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their component pieces. All ideas are compounded from a very small number of simple ideas which can be represented by a unique character. CONTENTS * 1 Logic
Logic
and the Universal Language * 2 Semantic web implementation * 3 See also * 4 References LOGIC AND THE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE Logic
Logic
was Leibniz's earliest philosophic interest going back to his teens. René Descartes had suggested that the lexicon of a universal language should consist of primitive elements. The systematic combination of these elements, according to syntactical rules, would generate the infinite combinations of computational structures required to represent human language
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Algebraic Logic
In mathematical logic , ALGEBRAIC LOGIC is the reasoning obtained by manipulating equations with free variables . What is now usually called classical algebraic logic focuses on the identification and algebraic description of models appropriate for the study of various logics (in the form of classes of algebras that constitute the algebraic semantics for these deductive systems ) and connected problems like representation and duality. Well known results like the representation theorem for Boolean algebras and Stone duality fall under the umbrella of classical algebraic logic (Czelakowski 2003 ). Works in the more recent abstract algebraic logic (AAL) focus on the process of algebraization itself, like classifying various forms of algebraizability using the Leibniz operator (Czelakowski 2003 )
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Freebase
FREEBASE was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members. It was an online collection of structured data harvested from many sources, including individual, user-submitted wiki contributions. Freebase
Freebase
aimed to create a global resource that allowed people (and machines) to access common information more effectively. It was developed by the American software company Metaweb and ran publicly since March 2007. Metaweb was acquired by Google
Google
in a private sale announced 16 July 2010. Google's Knowledge Graph
Knowledge Graph
was powered in part by Freebase. Freebase
Freebase
data was available for commercial and non-commercial use under a Creative Commons
Creative Commons
Attribution License , and an open API , RDF endpoint, and a database dump was provided for programmers
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Metaweb
METAWEB TECHNOLOGIES, INC. was a San Francisco -based company that developed Freebase
Freebase
, described as an "open, shared database of the world's knowledge". The company was founded by Veda Hlubinka-Cook and Danny Hillis in 2005. Metaweb
Metaweb
was acquired by Google
Google
in 2010. Google
Google
shut down Freebase
Freebase
in 2016, transferring all its data to Wikidata
Wikidata
. FUNDINGOn March 14, 2006, Metaweb
Metaweb
received $15 million in funding. Investors included Benchmark Capital
Benchmark Capital
, Millennium Technology Ventures , and Omidyar Network . On January 15, 2008, Metaweb
Metaweb
announced a $42.5 million Series B round led by Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
and Benchmark Capital
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Natural Semantic Metalanguage
The NATURAL SEMANTIC METALANGUAGE (NSM) is a linguistic theory based on the conception of Polish professor Andrzej Bogusławski . The theory was formally developed by Anna Wierzbicka at Warsaw University and later at the Australian National University
Australian National University
in the early 1970s, and Cliff Goddard at Australia
Australia
's Griffith University
Griffith University
. CONTENTS * 1 Approach * 2 Semantic primes * 3 Explication * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links APPROACHThe natural semantic metalanguage theory attempts to reduce the semantics of all lexicons down to a restricted set of semantic primitives, or primes . Primes are universal in that they have the same translation in every language, and they are primitive in that they cannot be defined using other words
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Philosophical Language
A PHILOSOPHICAL LANGUAGE is any constructed language that is constructed from first principles , like a logical language , but may entail a strong claim of absolute perfection or transcendent or even mystical truth rather than satisfaction of pragmatic goals. Philosophical languages were popular in Early Modern
Early Modern
times, partly motivated by the goal of recovering the lost Adamic or Divine language . The term IDEAL LANGUAGE is sometimes used near-synonymously, though more modern philosophical languages such as Toki Pona are less likely to involve such an exalted claim of perfection. It may be known as a language of pure ideology. The axioms and grammars of the languages together differ from commonly spoken languages today. In most older philosophical languages, and some newer ones, words are constructed from a limited set of morphemes that are treated as "elemental" or fundamental
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Amazon Standard Identification Number
The AMAZON STANDARD IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com
Amazon.com
and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization. USAGE AND STRUCTUREAlthough ASINs used to be unique worldwide, global expansion has changed things so that ASINs are only guaranteed unique within a marketplace. The same product may be referred to by several ASINs though, and different national sites may use a different ASIN for the same product. In general, ASINs are likely to be different between the country sites unless they are for a class of product where the ASIN is based on an externally defined and internationally consistent identifier, such as ISBN
ISBN
for books. Each product sold on Amazon.com
Amazon.com
is given a unique ASIN
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Hierarchical Classifier
A HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFIER is a classifier that maps input data into defined subsumptive output categories. The classification occurs first on a low-level with highly specific pieces of input data. The classifications of the individual pieces of data are then combined systematically and classified on a higher level iteratively until one output is produced. This final output is the overall classification of the data. Depending on application -specific details, this output can be one of a set of pre-defined outputs, one of a set of on-line learned outputs, or even a new novel classification that hasn't been seen before. Generally, such systems rely on relatively simple individual units of the hierarchy that have only one universal function to do the classification. In a sense, these machines rely on the power of the hierarchical structure itself instead of the computational abilities of the individual components. This makes them relatively simple, easily expandable, and very powerful
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Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems
GöDEL\'S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREMS are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic . These results, published by Kurt Gödel in 1931, are important both in mathematical logic and in the philosophy of mathematics . The theorems are widely, but not universally, interpreted as showing that Hilbert\'s program to find a complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. The first incompleteness theorem states that no consistent system of axioms whose theorems can be listed by an effective procedure (i.e., an algorithm ) is capable of proving all truths about the arithmetic of the natural numbers . For any such formal system, there will always be statements about the natural numbers that are true, but that are unprovable within the system. The second incompleteness theorem, an extension of the first, shows that the system cannot demonstrate its own consistency
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Noam Chomsky
AVRAM NOAM CHOMSKY (US : /æˈvrɑːm ˈnoʊm ˈtʃɒmski/ ( listen ) a-VRAHM NOHM CHOM-skee ; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist , philosopher , cognitive scientist , historian , social critic , and political activist . Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science . He is Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has worked since 1955, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics , war, politics, and mass media . Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism . Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City
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René Descartes
RENé DESCARTES (/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/ ; French: ; Latinized : RENATUS CARTESIUS; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist . Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau , Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces . He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the Dutch Golden Age . Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy
Meditations on First Philosophy
continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments
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Memex
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