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Alphabet Of Human Thought
The alphabet of human thought is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
that provides a universal way to represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their component pieces. All ideas are compounded from a very small number of simple ideas which can be represented by a unique character.[1][2]Contents1 Logic
Logic
and the Universal Language 2 Semantic web implementation 3 See also 4 References Logic
Logic
and the Universal Language[edit] Logic
Logic
was Leibniz's earliest philosophic interest going back to his teens. René Descartes
René Descartes
had suggested that the lexicon of a universal language should consist of primitive elements.[3] The systematic combination of these elements, according to syntactical rules, would generate the infinite combinations of computational structures required to represent human language
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An Essay Towards A Real Character, And A Philosophical Language
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes
(/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces
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Commonsense Knowledge (artificial Intelligence)
In artificial intelligence research, a commonsense knowledge base is a semantic network that focuses on capturing commonsense knowledge. Commonsense knowledge consists of facts about the everyday world, such as "Lemons are sour", that all humans are expected to know. Commonsense knowledge can underpin a commonsense reasoning process, to attempt inferences such as "You might bake a cake because you want to people to eat the cake". A natural language processing process can be attached to the commonsense knowledge base to allow the knowledge base to attempt to answer commonsense questions about the world.[1]Contents1 Commonsense reasoning 2 Applications 3 Data 4 Commonsense knowledge bases 5 See also 6 ReferencesCommonsense reasoning[edit] Main article: Commonsense reasoning Commonsense reasoning
Commonsense reasoning
simulates the human ability to make presumptions about the type and essence of ordinary situations they encounter every day
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Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic. These results, published by Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
in 1931, are important both in mathematical logic and in the philosophy of mathematics. The theorems are widely, but not universally, interpreted as showing that Hilbert's program to find a complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. The first incompleteness theorem states that no consistent system of axioms whose theorems can be listed by an effective procedure (i.e., an algorithm) is capable of proving all truths about the arithmetic of the natural numbers. For any such formal system, there will always be statements about the natural numbers that are true, but that are unprovable within the system
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Amazon Standard Identification Number
The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com
Amazon.com
and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization.[1] Usage and structure[edit] Although ASINs used to be unique worldwide, global expansion has changed things so that ASINs are only guaranteed unique within a marketplace.[citation needed] The same product may be referred to by several ASINs though, and different national sites may use a different ASIN for the same product.[citation needed] In general, ASINs are likely to be different between the country sites unless they are for a class of product where the ASIN is based on an externally defined and internationally consistent identifier, such as ISBN
ISBN
for books.[citation needed] Each product sold on Amazon.com
Amazon.com
is given a unique ASIN
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Philosophical Language
A philosophical language is any constructed language that is constructed from first principles, like a logical language, but may entail a strong claim of absolute perfection or transcendent or even mystical truth rather than satisfaction of pragmatic goals. Philosophical languages were popular in Early Modern
Early Modern
times, partly motivated by the goal of recovering the lost Adamic or Divine language. The term ideal language is sometimes used near-synonymously, though more modern philosophical languages such as Toki Pona
Toki Pona
are less likely to involve such an exalted claim of perfection. It may be known as a language of pure ideology. The axioms and grammars of the languages together differ from commonly spoken languages today. In most older philosophical languages, and some newer ones, words are constructed from a limited set of morphemes that are treated as "elemental" or fundamental
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Natural Semantic Metalanguage
The Natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) is a linguistic theory based on the conception of Polish professor Andrzej Bogusławski. The theory was formally developed by Anna Wierzbicka at Warsaw University
Warsaw University
and later at the Australian National University
Australian National University
in the early 1970s,[1] and Cliff Goddard at Australia's Griffith University.[2]Contents1 Approach 2 Semantic primes2.1 NSM Syntax 2.2 Explications3 Semantic Molecules 4 Minimal English 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksApproach[edit] The Natural semantic metalanguage theory attempts to reduce the semantics of all lexicons down to a restricted set of semantic primitives, or primes. Primes are universal in that they have the same translation in every language, and they are primitive in that they cannot be defined using other words
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Algebraic Logic
In mathematical logic, algebraic logic is the reasoning obtained by manipulating equations with free variables. What is now usually called classical algebraic logic focuses on the identification and algebraic description of models appropriate for the study of various logics (in the form of classes of algebras that constitute the algebraic semantics for these deductive systems) and connected problems like representation and duality
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Freebase
Freebase was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members. It was an online collection of structured data harvested from many sources, including individual, user-submitted wiki contributions.[2] Freebase aimed to create a global resource that allowed people (and machines) to access common information more effectively. It was developed by the American software company Metaweb and ran publicly since March 2007
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Metaweb
Metaweb
Metaweb
Technologies, Inc. was a San Francisco-based company that developed Freebase, described as an "open, shared database of the world's knowledge". The company was founded by Veda Hlubinka-Cook[2] and Danny Hillis
Danny Hillis
in 2005. Metaweb
Metaweb
was acquired by Google
Google
in 2010.[3] Google
Google
shut down Freebase in 2016, transferring all its data to Wikidata.[4] [5] Funding[edit] On March 14, 2006, Metaweb
Metaweb
received $15 million in funding
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Hierarchical Classifier
A hierarchical classifier is a classifier that maps input data into defined subsumptive output categories. The classification occurs first on a low-level with highly specific pieces of input data. The classifications of the individual pieces of data are then combined systematically and classified on a higher level iteratively until one output is produced. This final output is the overall classification of the data. Depending on application-specific details, this output can be one of a set of pre-defined outputs, one of a set of on-line learned outputs, or even a new novel classification that hasn't been seen before. Generally, such systems rely on relatively simple individual units of the hierarchy that have only one universal function to do the classification. In a sense, these machines rely on the power of the hierarchical structure itself instead of the computational abilities of the individual components
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Automated Theorem Prover
Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs. Automated reasoning over mathematical proof was a major impetus for the development of computer science.Contents1 Logical foundations 2 First implementations 3 Decidability of the problem 4 Related problems 5 Industrial uses 6 First-order theorem proving 7 Benchmarks and competitions 8 Popular techniques 9 Comparison9.1 Free software 9.2 Proprietary software10 Notable people 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External linksLogical foundations[edit] While the roots of formalised logic go back to Aristotle, the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries saw the development of modern logic and formalised mathematics
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Logic
Logic
Logic
(from the Ancient Greek: λογική, translit. logikḗ[1]), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth,[2] and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo, and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference, including fallacies, and the study of semantics, including paradoxes
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