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Alpaero Choucas
The Alpaero Choucas (English: Jackdaw) is a French two seat, single engine tailless kit-built ultralight motor glider. At least 12 are flying, with more under construction.[1][2]Contents1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Specifications 4 ReferencesDesign and development[edit] The Choucas is the fourth design by Claude Noin and is sometimes referred to as the Noin Choucas. It is an ultralight, initially produced in kit form for home assembly, though since 2005 flight-ready aircraft have been an option.[3] It is a single engine tailless aircraft of similar layout to the Fauvel AV.22: short, with fin and rudder but no horizontal stabiliser and a mid-mounted wing with mild forward sweep at mid-chord, carrying 4° of dihedral.[3] The aerofoil has reflex camber and a thickness/chord ratio of 17%.[4] The wing leading edge is straight and unswept, and the centre section has almost constant chord, but outboard the trailing edge has marked forward sweep
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Châteauvieux, Hautes-Alpes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Châteauvieux is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes
Hautes-Alpes
department in southeastern France. Population[edit]Historical populationYear Pop. ±%1962 127 —    1968 142 +11.8%1975 141 −0.7%1982 240 +70.2%1990 332 +38.3%1999 408 +22.9%2008 438 +7.4%See also[edit]Communes of the
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Four-stroke
A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:Intake: also known as induction or suction. This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. The piston is moving down as air is being sucked in by the downward motion against the piston Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below)
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HKS 700E
The HKS 700E
HKS 700E
is a twin-cylinder, horizontally opposed, four stroke, carburetted aircraft engine, designed for use on ultralight aircraft, powered parachutes and ultralight trikes. The engine is manufactured by HKS, a Japanese company noted for its automotive racing engines.[1][2][3]Contents1 Development 2 Variants 3 Applications 4 Specifications (700E)4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Components 4.3 Performance5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] The HKS 700E
HKS 700E
has dual capacitor discharge ignition, dual carburetors and electric start. The engine is mainly air-cooled, but with oil-cooled cylinder heads. The OHV pushrod engine has four valves per cylinder, and nickel-ceramic coated cylinder bores
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Two-stroke
A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions occurring at the same time. Two-stroke engines often have a high power-to-weight ratio, power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band"
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Hirth
Göbler-Hirthmotoren GmbH is an aircraft engine manufacturer based in Benningen, Germany.Contents1 History 2 Engines2.1 Piston 2.2 Turbine3 External linksHistory[edit] The company was founded by Hellmuth Hirth
Hellmuth Hirth
in 1920 as Hellmuth Hirth Versuchsbau, renamed Leichtmetall-Werke GmbH and finally Elektronmetall GmbH as a manufacturer of light alloy engine components, including parts for aircraft engine components. In 1927, Hirth separated this part of the business, renaming it as Hirth Motoren GmbH, with the remainder becoming Mahle GmbH. The first Hirth Motoren GmbH engine, the 4-cylinder inverted in-line HM 60, was released in 1931 and was fairly successful. An upgrade in the form of the HM 60R improved efficiency, and was followed by 6, 8 and 12-cylinder versions based on the same machinery
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Conventional Landing Gear
Conventional landing gear, or tailwheel-type landing gear, is an aircraft undercarriage consisting of two main wheels forward of the center of gravity and a small wheel or skid to support the tail.[1][2] The term taildragger is also used, although some claim it should apply only to those aircraft with a tailskid rather than a wheel.[2][3] The term "conventional" persists for historical reasons, but all modern jet aircraft and most modern propeller aircraft use tricycle gear.Contents1 History 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 Jet-powered tailwheel aircraft 5 Monowheel undercarriage 6 Training 7 Techniques 8 Examples8.1 Airplanes 8.2 Helicopters9 Modifications of tricycle gear aircraft 10 References10.1 Citations 10.2 BibliographyHistory[edit]Tailwheel detail on a Tiger Moth biplaneLike many attack helicopters, the
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Air Brake (aircraft)
In aeronautics, air brakes or speedbrakes are a type of flight control surfaces used on an aircraft to increase drag or increase the angle of approach during landing
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Spoiler (aeronautics)
In aeronautics, a spoiler (sometimes called a lift spoiler or lift dumper) is a device intended to intentionally reduce the lift component of an airfoil in a controlled way. Most often, spoilers are plates on the top surface of a wing that can be extended upward into the airflow to spoil it. By so doing, the spoiler creates a controlled stall over the portion of the wing behind it, greatly reducing the lift of that wing section. Spoilers differ from airbrakes in that airbrakes are designed to increase drag without affecting lift, while spoilers reduce lift as well as increasing drag. Spoilers fall into two categories: those that are deployed at controlled angles during flight to increase descent rate or control roll, and those that are fully deployed immediately on landing to greatly reduce lift ("lift dumpers") and increase drag
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Trim Tab
Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control surface on a boat or aircraft, used to control the trim of the controls, i.e. to counteract hydro- or aerodynamic forces and stabilise the boat or aircraft in a particular desired attitude without the need for the operator to constantly apply a control force. This is done by adjusting the angle of the tab relative to the larger surface. Changing the setting of a trim tab adjusts the neutral or resting position of a control surface (such as an elevator or rudder). As the desired position of a control surface changes (corresponding mainly to different speeds), an adjustable trim tab will allow the operator to reduce the manual force required to maintain that position—to zero, if used correctly. Thus the trim tab acts as a servo tab
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Elevator (aircraft)
Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are usually hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer. They may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at the front of the aircraft (early airplanes) or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" also called a slab elevator or stabilator.Contents1 Elevator control effectiveness 2 Elevators' location 3 Research 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksElevator control effectiveness[edit] The horizontal stabilizer usually creates a downward force which balances the nose down moment created by the wing lift force, which typically applies at a point (the wing center of lift) situated aft of the airplane's center of gravity
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Ailerons
An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll (or movement around the aircraft's longitudinal axis), which normally results in a change in flight path due to the tilting of the lift vector. Movement around this axis is called 'rolling' or 'banking'. The aileron was first patented by the British scientist and inventor Matthew Piers Watt Boulton in 1868, based on his 1864 paper On Aërial Locomotion. Even though there was extensive prior art in the 19th century for the aileron and its functional analog, wing warping, in 1906 the United States granted an expansive patent to the Wright Brothers of Dayton, Ohio, for the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated an airplane's control surfaces
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Winglets
Wingtip devices are intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft by reducing drag.[1] Although there are several types of wing tip device, which function in different manners, their intended effect is always to reduce an aircraft's drag by partial recovery of the tip vortex energy. Wingtip devices can also improve aircraft handling characteristics and enhance safety for following aircraft. Such devices increase the effective aspect ratio of a wing without materially increasing the wingspan. An extension of span would lower lift-induced drag, but would increase parasitic drag and would require boosting the strength and weight of the wing. At some point, there is no net benefit from further increased span
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