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Alloprotein
An alloprotein is a novel synthetic protein containing one or more "non-natural" amino acids. Non-natural in the context means an amino acid either not occurring in nature (novel and synthesised amino acids),[1] or occurring in nature but not naturally occurring within proteins (natural but non-proteinogenic amino acids).[2] The possibility for novel amino acids and proteins arises because in nature, the genetic code responsible for protein structure has 64 possible codons available for encoding all amino acids used in proteins (4 nucleotides in each of 3 bases; 4 x 4 x 4 gives 64 possible combinations[3]) but in human beings and other eukaryotes these encode for just 20 standard amino acids.[4] This level of information redundancy within the codon table is known in biochemistry as degeneracy. It opens the door for new amino acids to be potentially encoded.[4] One approach takes advantage of the redundancy of the 3 codons that encode a "stop" signal
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Non-proteinogenic Amino Acids
In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism. Despite the use of only 22 amino acids (21 in eukaryotes[note 1]) by the translational machinery to assemble proteins (the proteinogenic amino acids), over 140 amino acids are known to occur naturally in proteins and thousands more may occur in nature or be synthesized in the laboratory.[1] Many non-proteinogenic amino acids are noteworthy because they are;intermediates in biosynthesis, post-translationally formed in proteins, possess a physiological role (e.g. components of bacterial cell walls, neurotransmitters and toxins), natural or man-made pharmacological compounds, present in meteorites and in prebiotic experiments (e.g
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Transfer RNA
A transfer RNA
RNA
(abbreviated t RNA
RNA
and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length,[2] that serves as the physical link between the m RNA
RNA
and the amino acid sequence of proteins. t RNA
RNA
does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA)
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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University Of Tokyo
Coordinates: 35°42′48″N 139°45′44″E / 35.71333°N 139.76222°E / 35.71333; 139.76222University of Tokyo東京大学Latin: Universitas TociensisFormer namesImperial University (1886–1897) Tokyo
Tokyo
Imperial University (1897–1947)Type Public (National)Established 1877Academic affiliationsIARU APRU AEARU AGS BESETOHAPresident Makoto Gonokami (五神真)Academic staff2,429 full-time 175 part-time[1]Administrative staff5,779Students 28,697[2]Undergraduates 14,274Postgraduates 13,732Doctoral students6,022Other students747 research studentsLocation Bunkyō, Tokyo, JapanCampus UrbanColors Light Blue     Athletics 46 varsity teamsWebsite www.u-tokyo.ac.jpThe University of Tokyo
Tokyo
(東京大学, Tōkyō daigaku), abbreviated as Todai (東大, Tōdai)[3] or UTokyo,[4] is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
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Molecular Switch
A molecular switch is a molecule that can be reversibly shifted between two or more stable states.[1] The molecules may be shifted between the states in response to environmental stimuli, such as changes in pH, light, temperature, an electric current, microenvironment, or in the presence of a ligand. In some cases, a combination of stimuli is required. The oldest forms of synthetic molecular switches are pH indicators, which display distinct colors as a function of pH. Currently synthetic molecular switches are of interest in the field of nanotechnology for application in molecular computers or responsive drug delivery systems.[2] Molecular switches are also important to in biology because many biological functions are based on it, for instance allosteric regulation and vision
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Fluorescence
Fluorescence
Fluorescence
is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
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X-ray Diffraction
X-ray
X-ray
crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays
X-rays
to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder, and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules— X-ray
X-ray
crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields
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Atom
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are extremely small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects. Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons. Protons and neutrons are called nucleons. More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli
Bacillus coli
communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/;[1] also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia
Escherichia
that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).[2][3] Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.[4][5] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[6] and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship.[7][8] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter
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Bacterium
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Aminoacyl TRNA Synthetase
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA. It does so by catalyzing the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. In humans, the 20 different types of aa-tRNA are made by the 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid of the genetic code. This is sometimes called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with the amino acid. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing peptide, according to the genetic code
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