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Allied Invasion Of North Africa
Coordinates: 35°05′06″N 2°01′44″W / 35.085°N 2.029°W / 35.085; -2.029Operation TorchPart of the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
of World War IIA map showing landings during the operationDate 8–16 November 1942Location French Morocco
French Morocco
and French AlgeriaResultAllied victoryAnglo-American occupation of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria Free France
Free France
gains control of French West Africa German and Italian occupation of southern France
France
and scuttling of the French fleet Run for TunisBelligerents United States  United Kingdom India Free FranceNaval only Canada  Netherlands  Australia Vichy France Algeria MoroccoNaval only Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Dwight D. Eisenhower George S
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Operation Compass
 United Kingdom British India Australia  Free France ItalyCommanders and leadersArchibald Wavell Henry Maitland Wilson Richard O'Connor Iven Mackay Rodolfo Graziani Giuseppe Tellera † Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli (POW)Strength36,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 142 aircraft 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tankettes and tanks 331 aircraftCasualties and losses500 killed 1,373 wounded 55 missing 26 aircraft 5,500+ killed 10,000 wounded 133,298 captured 420 tanks 845 guns 564 aircraft (incl
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Ernst Kals
Ernst Kals (2 August 1905 – 2 November 1979) was a Kapitän zur See with the Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
during World War II. He commanded the Type IXC U-boat U-130 on five patrols, and sank twenty ships, for a total of 145,656 tons of Allied shipping. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.Contents1 Career 2 Later life 3 Summary of career3.1 Ships attacked 3.2 Awards4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 BibliographyCareer[edit] Kals joined the Reichsmarine
Reichsmarine
in 1924. In October 1940, after a period of service on torpedo boats and light cruisers, he transferred to the Ubootwaffe ("U-boat force"). After one patrol on U-37 under the command of Nicolai Clausen
Nicolai Clausen
as commander in training, he took command of U-130 in June 1941
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Shore Batteries
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.[citation needed] The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.Contents1 Origin 2 Land usage2.1 Mobile batteries 2.2 Fixed battery3 Naval usage 4 Modern battery organization4.1 United States Marine Corps5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksOrigin[edit] Artillery
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Battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, and a fleet of battleships was considered vital for any nation that desired to maintain command of the sea. The word battleship was coined around 1794 and is a contraction of the phrase line-of-battle ship, the dominant wooden warship during the Age of Sail.[1] The term came into formal use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship,[2] now referred to by historians as pre-dreadnought battleships
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Operation Reservist
4,000 31 warshipsCasualties and losses2 ships lost 307 killed 250 woundedv t eNorth African CampaignWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassFort Capuzzo Nibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia Mechili Beda FommKufra Giarabub Sonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesSkorpion Brevity Battleaxe CrusaderFlipper 1st Bir el Gubi Point 175 2nd Bir el GubiGazalaBir HakeimMersa Matruh 1st Alamein Alam Halfa AgreementCaravanCamouflageBertramBraganza 2nd AlameinOutpost SnipeEl AgheilaTorchCasablanca Reservist Terminal Port LyauteyTunisiaRun for Tunis Sidi Bou Zid Kasserine Pass Ochsenkopf Medenine Mareth Line El Guettar Wadi Akarit Longstop Hill Hill 609 Vulcan Flax Retribution Strike Operation Reservist was an Allied military operation during the Second World War
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HMS Algerine
Eight ships of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
have been named HMS Algerine:HMS Algerine (1810) was a 10-gun schooner launched in 1810 and wrecked in 1813. HMS Algerine was originally a 12-gun gun-brig, formerly the French Pierre Cézar. She was captured in 1808 and named HMS Tigress
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HMS Tynwald
TSS (RMS) Tynwald No. 165281 was a passenger vessel which served with the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company from 1937 until she was requisitioned for war service at the end of 1940. She was the fourth ship in the line's history to bear the name
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Flotilla Leader
A flotilla leader was a warship suitable for commanding a flotilla of destroyers or other small warships, typically a small cruiser or a large destroyer (known as a destroyer leader). The flotilla leader provided space, equipment and staff for the flotilla commodore (who typically held the rank of captain), including a wireless room, senior engineering and gunnery officers, and administrative staff to support the officers. They were a feature of navies in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Originally, older light or scout cruisers were often used, but in the early 1900s, the rapidly increasing speed of new destroyer designs meant that such vessels could no longer keep pace with their charges
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Western Desert Campaign
  British Empire
British Empire
& Commonwealth United Kingdom India  Palestine Sudan  Southern Rhodesia Australia  New Zealand  South Africa Free France French colonial empire Free Poland Free Greece Free Czechoslovakia  Italy  GermanyCommanders and leaders Archibald Wavell Alan Cunningham Claude Auchinleck Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Italo Balbo † Rodolfo Graziani Italo Gariboldi Ettore Bastico Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme †v
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Italian Invasion Of Egypt
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush BoxThe Italian invasion of Egypt
Egypt
(Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign
Western Desert Campaign
(1940–1943) of the Second World War. The goal of the offensive was to seize the Suez Canal; the Italian forces in Libya
Libya
would have to advance along the coast, across northern Egypt to the canal
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Fort Capuzzo
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Box Fort Capuzzo
Fort Capuzzo
(Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border and next to the Italian Frontier Wire. The Litoranea Balbo
Litoranea Balbo
(Via Balbia) ran south from Bardia to Fort Capuzzo, 13 km (8 mi) inland, west of Sollum, then east across the Egyptian frontier, to the port over the coastal escarpment
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François Darlan
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral
Admiral
and political figure. He was Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet and commander in chief of the French Navy
French Navy
in 1939 at the beginning of World War II. After France signed an armistice with Nazi Germany in 1940, Darlan served in the pro-German Vichy
Vichy
regime, becoming its deputy leader for a time. When the Allies invaded French North Africa in 1942, Darlan was the highest-ranking officer there, and a deal was made, giving him control of North African French forces in exchange for joining their side
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Battle Of Nibeiwa
United Kingdom British India ItalyCommanders and leadersRichard O'Connor Reginald Savory Pietro Maletti  †Units involved11th Indian Infantry Brigade 7th Royal Tank Regiment Maletti GroupStrength5,000 soldiers 47 tanks 4,100 soldiers 23 tanksCasualties and losses56 killed 27 tanks disabled/broken down 819 killed 1,338 wounded 2,000 prisoners 28 tanksNibeiwa campNibeiwa, 12 mi (19 km) south of the port of Sidi Barraniv t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesBrevity Skorpion Battleaxe CrusaderFlipper 1st Bir el Gubi Point 175 2nd B
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Battle Of Sidi Barrani
 United Kingdom British India Australia  Free France ItalyCommanders and leaders Archibald Wavell Henry Maitland Wilson Richard O'Connor Rodolfo Graziani Giuseppe Tellera Annibale BergonzoliStrength36,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 142 aircraft 60,000 soldiers 250 guns 120 tanks 331 aircraftCasualties and losses624 soldiers 2,194 killed 2,286 wounded 38,300 prisoners 237 guns 73 tanks c. 1,000 vehiclesSidi BarraniSidi Barrani, Egyptv t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume Tobruk Bardia
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