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Alhacen
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Latinized Alhazen[8] /ˌælˈhɑːzən/; full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was an Arab[9][10][11][12][13] mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.[14] He made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular, his most influential work being his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in the
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Kepler
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
(/ˈkɛplər/;[1] German: [joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ]; December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Kepler is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in Prague, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He also taught mathematics in Linz, and was an adviser to General Wallenstein
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Ibn Sahl (mathematician)
Ibn Sahl (full name Abū Saʿd al-ʿAlāʾ ibn Sahl أبو سعد العلاء ابن سهل; c. 940–1000) was a Muslim Persian[2][3][4][5] mathematician and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age,[6] associated with the Buwayhid court of Baghdad. Nothing in his name allows us to glimpse his country of origin.[7] He is known to have written an optical treatise around 984. The text of this treatise was reconstructed by Roshdi Rashed from two manuscripts (edited 1993).: Damascus, al-Ẓāhirīya MS 4871, 3 fols., and Tehran, Millī MS 867, 51 fols. The Tehran manuscript is much longer, but it is badly damaged, and the Damascus ms. contains a section missing entirely from the Tehran ms. The Damascus ms. has the title Fī al-'āla al-muḥriqa "On the burning instruments", the Tehran ms
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Abū Sahl Al-Qūhī
Abū Sahl Wayjan ibn Rustam al-Qūhī (al-Kūhī; Persian: ابوسهل بیژن کوهی‎ Abusahl Bijan-e Koohi) was a Persian[1] mathematician, physicist and astronomer. He was from Kuh (or Quh), an area in Tabaristan, Amol, and flourished in Baghdad
Baghdad
in the 10th century. He is considered one of the greatest Muslim geometers, with many mathematical and astronomical writings ascribed to him.[2][3][4]Engraving of al-Qūhī's perfect compass to draw conic sectionsAl-Qūhī was the leader of the astronomers working in 988 AD at the observatory built by the Buwayhid
Buwayhid
amir Sharaf al-Dawla
Sharaf al-Dawla
in Badhdad. He wrote a treatise on the astrolabe in which he solves a number of difficult geometric problems. In mathematics he devoted his attention to those Archimedean and Apollonian problems leading to equations higher than the second degree
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Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
(Persian pronunciation: [xæjˈjɑːm]; عمر خیّام  (Persian); 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.[3][4]:7 As a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics.[5][6] As an astronomer, he composed a calendar which proved to be a more accurate computation of time than that proposed five centuries later by Pope Gregory XIII.[7]:659[8] Omar was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran. He spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade. There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات‎)
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Taqi Ad-Din Muhammad Ibn Ma'ruf
Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf
Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf
ash-Shami al-Asadi (Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي, Turkish: Takiyüddin or Taki) (1526–1585) was a Ottoman era polymath active in Constantinople. He was the author of more than ninety books on a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, clocks, engineering, mathematics, mechanics, optics and natural philosophy.[citation needed] In 1574 the Ottoman Sultan Murad III
Murad III
invited Taqī ad-Dīn to build the Constantinople
Constantinople
observatory. Using his exceptional knowledge in the mechanical arts, Taqī ad-Dīn constructed instruments like huge armillary and mechanical clocks that he used in his observations of the Great Comet of 1577
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Averroes
Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Arabic: ابن رشد‎; full name Arabic: أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd; 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/), was a medieval Andalusian Arab
Arab
polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, the Maliki
Maliki
school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political theory, the theory of Andalusian classical music, geography, mathematics, as well as the medieval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus (present-day Spain), and died at Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in present-day Morocco
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Al-Khazini
Abū al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansūr al-Khāzini or simply al-Khāzini (ابوالفتح عبدالرحمن منصور خازنی  (Persian), flourished 1115–1130) was an astronomer of Byzantine
Byzantine
origin from Seljuk Persia
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John Peckham
John Peckham[a] (c. 1230 – 8 December 1292) was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292. He was a native of Sussex
Sussex
who was educated at Lewes Priory
Lewes Priory
and became a Friar Minor
Friar Minor
about 1250. He studied at the University of Paris
University of Paris
under Bonaventure, where he would later teach theology. From his teaching, he came into conflict with Thomas Aquinas, whom he debated on two occasions. Known as a conservative theologian, he opposed Aquinas' views on the nature of the soul. Peckham also studied optics and astronomy, and his studies in those subjects were influenced by Roger Bacon. In around 1270, Peckham returned to England, where he taught at the University of Oxford, and was elected the provincial minister of England (Minoriten) in 1275
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Witelo
Witelo (also Erazmus Ciołek Witelo; Witelon; Vitellio; Vitello; Vitello Thuringopolonis; Vitulon; Erazm Ciołek); born ca. 1230, probably in Legnica in Lower Silesia; died after 1280, before 1314) was a friar, theologian and scientist: a physicist, natural philosopher, mathematician. He is an important figure in the history of philosophy in Poland. On the Moon there is a crater, Vitello, named after him.Contents1 Life 2 Perspectiva 3 Other works 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Witelo's mother was from a Polish knightly house, while his father was a German settler from Thuringia. He called himself, in Latin, "Thuringorum et Polonorum filius" — "a son of Thuringians and Poles." He studied at Padua University about 1260, then went on to Viterbo. He became friends with William of Moerbeke, the translator of Aristotle. Witelo's major surviving work on optics, Perspectiva, completed in about 1270–78,[1] was dedicated to William
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Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
OFM (/ˈbeɪkən/;[6] Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was an English philosopher and Franciscan
Franciscan
friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head. He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle
Aristotle
and by Arab scientist Alhazen.[7] His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar
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Latinization Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Islamic Calendar
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used (often alongside the Gregorian calendar) to date events in many Muslim
Muslim
countries. It is also used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
employs the Hijri era
Hijri era
whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year
Islamic New Year
of AD 622. During that year, Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers migrated from Mecca
Mecca
to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim
Muslim
community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Mathematics In Medieval Islam
Mathematics
Mathematics
during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics
Greek mathematics
(Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics
Indian mathematics
(Aryabhata, Brahmagupta)
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