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Algonquin Peak
Algonquin Peak
Algonquin Peak
is in the MacIntyre Range
MacIntyre Range
in the town of North Elba, in Essex County, New York. It is the second highest mountain in New York,[2] and one of the 46 Adirondack High Peaks
Adirondack High Peaks
in Adirondack Park. Its name comes from its reputedly being on the Algonquian side of a nearby informal boundary between the Algonquian and their Iroquois neighbors. Algonquin is popular with hikers, accessible from the popular Adirondak Loj
Adirondak Loj
trailhead near Heart Lake outside Lake Placid for a day trip
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Hiking
Hiking
Hiking
is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with rambling (a slightly old-fashioned term), hillwalking, and fell walking (a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England)
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Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System
Geographic Names Information System
(GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States
United States
of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States
United States
Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names. The database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded
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Key Col
In topography, prominence[a] characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria.Contents1 Definitions 2 Illustration 3 In mountaineering 4 Parent peak4.1 Encirclement or island parentage 4.2 Prominence parentage 4.3 Line parentage 4.4 Other criteria5 Issues in choice of summit and key col 6 Interesting prominence situations 7 Calculations and mathematics 8 Wet prominence and dry prominence 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksDefinitions[edit]Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. The dashed horizontal lines show the lowest contours that do not encircle higher peaks
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Topographic Prominence
In topography, prominence[a] characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria.Contents1 Definitions 2 Illustration 3 In mountaineering 4 Parent peak4.1 Encirclement or island parentage 4.2 Prominence parentage 4.3 Line parentage 4.4 Other criteria5 Issues in choice of summit and key col 6 Interesting prominence situations 7 Calculations and mathematics 8 Wet prominence and dry prominence 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksDefinitions[edit]Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. The dashed horizontal lines show the lowest contours that do not encircle higher peaks
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Alpine Tundra
Alpine tundra
Alpine tundra
is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude. The high altitude causes an adverse climate, which is too cold and windy to support tree growth. Alpine tundra
Alpine tundra
transitions to sub-alpine forests below the tree line; stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone are known as Krummholz. With increasing elevation it ends at the snow line where snow and ice persist through summer. Alpine tundra
Alpine tundra
occurs in mountains worldwide. The flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by dwarf shrubs close to the ground
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Lake Placid, New York
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521.[2] The village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba, 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, comprise what is known as the Tri-Lakes region. Lake Placid hosted the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid also hosted the 1972 Winter Universiade and the 2000 Winter Goodwill Games.Contents1 History 2 Olympic Games 3 Recreational opportunities 4 Regular sporting events 5 Education 6 Transportation 7 Geography 8 Climate 9 Demographics 10 Notable people10.1 Winter Olympic athletes11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit] Lake Placid was founded in the early 19th century to develop an iron ore mining operation
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Iroquois
The Iroquois
Iroquois
(/ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/ or /ˈɪrəkwɑː/) or Haudenosaunee (/ˈhoʊdənoʊˈʃoʊni/)[1] are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the " Iroquois
Iroquois
League", and later as the "Iroquois Confederacy", and to the English as the "Five Nations" (before 1722), and later as the "Six Nations", comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora peoples. The Iroquois
Iroquois
have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, and by offering shelter to displaced peoples. The historic Erie, Susquehannock, Wyandot (Huron), and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian
Iroquoian
languages
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Algonquian Peoples
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples. Historically, the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages.A 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock.Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans and squash (the "Three Sisters"). The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
cultivated wild rice[citation needed]. The Algonquians of New England
New England
(who spoke the Eastern Algonquian) practiced a seasonal economy. The basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure
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New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.85 million residents in 2017,[4] it is the fourth most populous state. To differentiate from its city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State. The state's most populous city, New York City
New York City
makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island.[9] The state and city were both named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the future King James II of England
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Essex County, New York
Essex County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,370.[1] Its county seat is the hamlet of Elizabethtown.[2] Its name is from the English county of Essex. Along with Hamilton County, Essex is entirely within the Adirondack Park.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Education4.1 Private schools 4.2 Higher education5 Transportation5.1 Airports6 Communities6.1 Towns 6.2 Villages 6.3 Census-designated places 6.4 Hamlets7 Politics 8 Notable residents 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] When counties were established in the state of New York in 1683, the present Essex County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York state as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean
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Tree Line
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and in frigid environments. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture).[1]:51 The tree line should not be confused with a lower timberline or forest line, which is the line where trees form a forest with a closed canopy.[2]:151[3]:18 At the tree line, tree growth is often sparse and stunted, with the last trees forming densely matted bushes, known as krummholz (German for "crooked wood").[4]:58 The tree line, like many other natural lines (lake boundaries, for example), appears well-defined from a distance, but upon sufficiently close inspection, it is a gradual transition in most places
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Normal Route
A normal route or normal way (French: Voie Normale; German: Normalweg) is the most frequently used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is usually the simplest route.[1][2] In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking, construction and upkeep:Footpaths (Fußwege) Hiking trails (Wanderwege) Mountain trails (Bergwege) Alpine routes (Alpine Routen) Climbing
Climbing
routes (Kletterrouten) and High Alpine routes (Hochalpine Routen) in combined rock and ice terrain, (UIAA) graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one that is most used. There may be technically easier variations. This is especially the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter
Hochkalter
and also Mount Everest
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Topographic Map
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map
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Ebenezer Emmons
Ebenezer Emmons (May 16, 1799 – October 1, 1863), was a pioneering American geologist whose work includes the naming of the Adirondack Mountains in New York as well as a first ascent of Mount Marcy.Contents1 Early life 2 Geological Survey of New York 3 Adirondack mountain climber 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Emmons was born at Middlefield, Massachusetts, on May 16, 1799, son of Ebenezer and Mary (Mack) Emmons.[1] Emmons prepared for college under Rev. Mr. Halleck and entered Williams College at age 16 and graduated with the class of 1818. He later studied medicine at Albany, New York, and after taking his degree practiced as a doctor for some years in Berkshire County, Massachusetts
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